State trunk highway system. 84.02(1)(1)
The system of highways known as the trunk highway system heretofore selected and laid out by the legislature and by the highway commission and by special legislative state trunk highway committees and approved by said highway commission and as revised, altered and changed by and under authority vested by law in the highway commission, is hereby validated and confirmed and designated the state trunk highway system but without prejudice to the exercise of the power given to change such system, and all acts by which parts of said system were heretofore adopted or declared to be trunk highways are confirmed and validated. Section 82.19 (2)
does not apply to the state trunk highway system.
(2) County line highways apportioned.
The apportionment heretofore made by the highway commission of portions of the state trunk highway system that lie on county lines is hereby ratified. The portion of such county line highways assigned to any county shall be considered as lying wholly within such county, and all the provisions for construction and maintenance shall apply to such portion just as though it lay wholly within the county to which assigned. Bridges on the state trunk highway system which span streams forming the boundary between 2 counties shall be considered as lying one-half in each county.
Changes may be made in the state trunk system by the department, if it deems that the public good is best served by making the changes. The department, in making the changes, may lay out new highways by the procedure under this subsection. Due notice shall be given to the localities concerned of the intention to make changes or discontinuances, and if the change proposes to lay a highway via a new location and the distance along such deviation from the existing location exceeds 2 1/2 miles, then a hearing in or near the region affected by the proposed change shall be held prior to making the change effective. The notice shall also be given to the secretary of natural resources either by registered mail or personally. Whenever the department decides to thus change more than 2 1/2 miles of the system the change shall not be effective until the decision of the department has been referred to and approved by the county board of each county in which any part of the proposed change is situated. A copy of the decision shall be filed in the office of the clerk of each county in which a change is made or proposed. Where the distance along the deviation from the existing location exceeds 5 miles the change shall constitute an addition to the state trunk highway system. The preexisting route shall continue to be a state trunk highway unless the county board of each county in which any part of the relocation lies and the department mutually agree to its discontinuance as a state trunk highway. Whenever such county board or boards and the department cannot so agree the department shall report the problem to the next ensuing session of the legislature for determination.
The action of any town, village or county board or city council discontinuing, relocating or altering any highway on the state trunk system shall be void unless the department approves the same in writing.
(4) Guideboards; warnings; route marking. 84.02(4)(a)(a)
The department shall mark the highways of the state trunk highway system and also the connecting highways. The markers shall be uniform, except that the numbers thereon shall correspond with the numbers given to various routes by the department and found on the official highway maps issued by the department. No similar design or marker shall be used for marking other highway routes.
No person shall mark any other highway routes or trails unless the route marked shall coincide exactly with the state trunk system. No such routes shall be marked until exact descriptions of the routes selected for marking have been filed with and the routes and markings approved by the department. Every route laid out and marked shall be made to conform to the state trunk system, and the person responsible for the marking of such route shall remove or erase such marks from every portion of such route which does not coincide with the state trunk highway system. The department shall report to the department of financial institutions any violations of or failure to comply with the provisions of this subsection, and the department of financial institutions shall thereupon revoke the privilege, license or incorporation of the offender, and the department shall cause the offending marks to be erased, removed or destroyed. The expense of such erasure, removal or destruction shall be paid out of funds appropriated to the department, and may be recovered in the name of the state from the person responsible for such unauthorized marking.
The department shall erect and maintain such standard guide and warning signs and lighting as it deems necessary within the right-of-way along the state trunk system, and it is unlawful to erect any lighting or display any other guide or warning signs upon the state trunk system, except in cases of emergency or when approved by the department. Any erection in violation hereof may be removed by the department.
The department may cooperate with the Public Roads Administration or other designated agency of the federal government in formulating and adopting or changing a uniform system of numbering, or designating highways of interstate character within this state, and in the selection and erection of uniform danger signals and safety devices for the protection and direction of traffic.
The department shall adopt a manual establishing a uniform system of traffic control devices for use upon the highways of this state. The system shall be consistent with and, so far as practicable, conform to current nationally recognized standards for traffic control devices.
The department shall adopt a manual establishing a uniform system of signs, signals, markings and devices for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding bicycle traffic on highways, streets and bikeways, as defined in s. 84.60 (1) (a)
. The system, shall be consistent with and shall conform to the system established under par. (e)
As often as it deems necessary, the department shall publish highway service maps showing the state trunk highway system and such other main highways and other features as may seem desirable. Such highway service maps shall be sold by the department at a price to be fixed by it, which shall be not less than cost. The department may permit the use of its digital base map data for other maps and publications and may charge a fair fee for such use. The department shall make and publish or duplicate such highway service maps as are required for its use, and shall publish folded highway maps of Wisconsin for free distribution to the public. The department shall ensure that the folded highway maps bear information regarding the requirements of s. 347.48 (4)
Upon publication of the highway service maps, the department shall distribute without charge 50 of these maps to each officer and member of the legislature. Any officer or member of the legislature may request additional highway service maps. The request may be written or oral. The fee for the additional maps shall be the fee set by the department under par. (a)
Upon publication of the folded highway maps, the department shall distribute without charge 500 of these maps to each officer and member of the legislature and 300 of these maps to the legislative reference bureau. Any officer or member of the legislature may request additional folded highway maps. The request may be written or oral. No charge may be made for the additional folded highway maps.
The highway service maps and folded highway maps published by the department for sale or distribution to the public under par. (a)
shall include all of the following:
Identification of each veterans memorial highway or bridge designated under this chapter and the Wisconsin 9/11 Memorial Highway designated under s. 84.10295
Identification of the location of each of the following:
Memorial Park in the city of Arcadia in Trempealeau County.
The All Veterans' Memorial in the village of Clear Lake in Polk County.
The Highground Veterans Memorial Park near the city of Neillsville in Clark County.
The Milwaukee County War Memorial Center in the city of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County.
The Richard I. Bong Veterans Heritage Center in the city of Superior in Douglas County.
The Wisconsin Korean War Veterans Memorial in the village of Plover in Portage County.
The Northern Wisconsin Veterans Memorial Cemetery near the city of Spooner in Washburn County.
The Southern Wisconsin Veterans Memorial Cemetery near the village of Union Grove in Racine County.
The Central Wisconsin Veterans Memorial Cemetery at King near the city of Waupaca in Waupaca County.
The Wisconsin Veterans Home at King near the city of Waupaca in Waupaca County.
The Wisconsin Veterans Home at Union Grove near the village of Union Grove in Racine County.
The Wisconsin Veterans Museum in the city of Madison in Dane County.
The Wisconsin National Guard Museum in the village of Camp Douglas in Juneau County.
The Wisconsin Veterans Tribute and the Citizen Soldier Monument in the village of Cadott in Chippewa County.
The Wisconsin Veterans Home at Chippewa Falls in the city of Chippewa Falls in Chippewa County.
The Wisconsin 9/11 Memorial and Education Center in the village of Kewaskum in Washington County.
(6) Alternate routes through cities, villages and towns.
In cases where any state trunk highway passes near but not through the central or business portion of any city, village or town, the department may upon petition of any city, village or town designate an alternate route through such central or business portion, and shall install suitable marking to guide travelers over such alternate route. No such designation shall be made unless the department finds that public travel will be benefited. Any such designation may be revoked on 30 days' notice to the city, village or town if the department finds that public travel is not benefited. Such designation shall impose no responsibility on the state, except the cost of marking in the first instance. Such alternate routes shall be constructed and maintained and kept clear of snow, in a condition satisfactory to the department without expense to the state, and the department may require assurances to that effect before making such designation.
(7) Additions from county trunk highways.
Whenever the traffic on any county trunk highway averages in any year 250 or more vehicles daily, the county board may by resolution request that such county trunk highway be added to the state trunk highway system. A copy of such resolution shall be filed with the department. If after investigation the department finds that the traffic on said county trunk highway meets the requirements of this subsection, it may by order add said highway to the state trunk highway system, but the total additions under this subsection shall not exceed 500 miles. Whenever the traffic on any portion of a state trunk highway averages in any year 150 or less vehicles daily, the county board of the county wherein such state trunk highway is situated may by resolution request that such be transferred to the county trunk highway system. A copy of such resolution shall be filed with the department. If after investigation the department finds that the traffic on said state trunk highway is as stated in said resolution, it may order said highway taken from the state trunk highway system and made a county trunk highway.
(8) Jurisdictional transfers: state-local agreements. 84.02(8)(a)(a)
The department may make additions or deletions to the state trunk highway system by entering into a jurisdictional transfer agreement with a municipality or county. Addition to or deletion of any part of the state trunk highway system under this subsection may be made without regard to any mileage limitation or procedural requirement imposed under this section or chapter 518, laws of 1947
The transfer of a highway under a jurisdictional transfer agreement may not take effect until the agreement is approved by the department and by resolution of the governing body of the municipality or county that is a party to the agreement.
A jurisdictional transfer agreement shall specify the length of time for which it is in effect and may contain any other terms and conditions regarding the maintenance or rehabilitation of any highway transferred under the agreement.
The department and the municipality or county that is party to a jurisdictional transfer agreement shall maintain a record of the agreement.
(8m) Reversion of jurisdiction.
A highway that is under the jurisdiction of a municipality or county and that satisfies all of the following requirements shall be transferred to the jurisdiction of the department:
Prior to September 23, 2017, jurisdiction of the highway was transferred under sub. (8)
by the department to a municipality or county under a jurisdictional transfer agreement to which more than one municipality or county was party.
The municipality or county to which jurisdiction of the highway was transferred under par. (a)
subsequently transferred under an agreement under s. 66.0307
territory in which the highway is located to another municipality or county and the agreement under s. 66.0307
did not specifically address jurisdiction of the highway.
Not later than 6 months after September 23, 2017, the governing body of the transferor and transferee municipalities or counties under par. (b)
adopt resolutions stating the intent of the municipality or county to revert jurisdiction of the highway to the department and provide a copy of the resolution to the department.
In case it is impracticable to maintain any portion of the state trunk highway system as laid out, pending its improvement or construction, the department may designate a temporary route as part of the state trunk highway system, and in such case the temporary route shall be considered part of the state trunk highway system in every respect, except that it may not be constructed as a state trunk highway.
When any portion of the state trunk highway system is impassable or dangerous to travel or when it shall be deemed necessary because of construction or maintenance work or for other reasons to suspend all or part of the travel thereon, the department may route such travel over a detour around such portion of the state trunk highway system. Such detour may be routed over any other public highway or temporary highway which may be improved or maintained as part of the cost of constructing or maintaining the state trunk highway system to the extent necessary, as determined by the department, because of such additional travel. Such routing of state trunk highway traffic over other public highways shall not alter the existing status of such other public highways.
(11) Connecting highways.
The state trunk highway system shall not include the marked routes thereof over the streets or highways in municipalities which the department has designated as being connecting highways. Those municipal streets or highways so excluded as state trunk highways but marked as such and designated as connecting highways are further described and the aids determined therefor under s. 86.32
(12) State trunk system maps.
The department shall maintain in its permanent record a map of each county on a scale of not less than one-half inch per mile showing the official layout of the state trunk highway system. Annually, as soon as practical after January 1, a copy of such map, showing the official layout of the state trunk highway system in each county as it existed at the close of the previous calendar year, shall be filed with the county clerk and county highway commissioner thereof.
The department shall give high priority to the completion of the STH 28/USH 41 interchange in Washington County as part of the USH 41 corridor project.
(14) I 39 interchange.
If a waiver from the federal department of transportation is required for the construction of an interchange at the intersection of I 39 and Kowalski Road in Marathon County, and if the state department of transportation determines that construction of the interchange will have no adverse impact on safety in the vicinity of the intersection, the state department of transportation shall request a waiver to permit construction of the interchange. If a waiver is granted, or if the state department of transportation determines both that a waiver is not required and that such construction will have no adverse impact on safety in the vicinity of the intersection, the department of transportation shall design the interchange specified in this subsection and allocate funds from the appropriations under s. 20.395 (3) (cq)
sufficient to construct the interchange.
(15) USH 51 reconstruction project in Dane County.
The department shall commence, in the 2007-08 fiscal year, the preparation of an environmental impact statement or environmental assessment, as applicable, for the USH 51 north segment reconstruction project in Dane County, which includes expanding USH 51 to a 4-lane divided highway from the intersection of USH 51 and Reardon Road to just north of the intersection of USH 51 and CTH “V"/Grinde Road in the village of DeForest. The department shall commence construction of this project no later than December 31, 2012.
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 214
, which affected this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
See also ch. Trans 208
, Wis. adm. code.
A local unit of government is without jurisdiction to unilaterally change a segment of the state highway system. 61 Atty. Gen. 263.
Federal aid; state and local funds. 84.03(1)(a)(a)
All moneys granted or allotted to the state of Wisconsin as federal aid for highways and all state appropriations and other funds available to match or supplement such federal aid funds and so utilized by the department shall be expended by the department in accordance with the act of congress relating to such federal aid funds.
Funds provided by any county, city, village or town to construct, reconstruct or improve any highway, street or bridge with state or federal aid under this chapter, shall be paid to the department or to the state treasury as the department may require and shall be expended in accordance with s. 84.06
and the federal acts relating to such federal aid. The use of state or federal aid in the construction, reconstruction or improvement of any highway, street or bridge not on the state trunk highway system shall not relieve the county, city, village or town of any obligation to maintain such highway, street or bridge. The department may allot to any city of the 1st class any state and federal highway funds to which such city may be entitled for the purpose of the payment of interest, debt charges, amortization or retirement of street or highway bonds issued pursuant to s. 67.05
or other applicable provisions of law. Such cities may use such highway funds so allotted for such purposes, paying interest, debt charges and costs, amortization or retirement of such bonds.
On any highway, street or bridge hereafter constructed, reconstructed or improved with state or federal aid under this chapter, the location, form and character of informational, regulatory and warning signs, curb and pavement or other markings, and traffic signals installed or placed by any public authority or other agency shall be subject to the approval of the department; and the department is directed to approve only such installations as will promote the safe and efficient utilization of the highways, streets and bridges.
(2) Federal appropriations adjustments. 84.03(2)(a)1.
“Amount of federal funds" means the sum of federal revenues received under the federal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, as amended, or under a substantially similar federal legislative act. “Amount of federal funds" does not include the first $300,000,000 of federal moneys received by the state, pursuant to federal legislation enacted during the 111th Congress, for the purpose of reviving the economy of the United States, which moneys are intended to be used for transportation purposes.
“The schedule" means the schedule under s. 20.005 (3)
as published in the biennial budget act for the first fiscal year of a fiscal biennium and as approved by the joint committee on finance under s. 20.004 (2)
for the 2nd fiscal year of a fiscal biennium.
Subject to subd. 2.
, the secretary shall submit annually to the joint committee on finance a plan identifying how the secretary proposes to adjust the department's appropriations for that state fiscal year to reflect the most recent estimate of the amount of federal funds that the department will be appropriated in that state fiscal year. The secretary shall submit the plan by the later of the following:
Thirty days after the enactment of the federal legislation described under par. (a) 1.
for that federal fiscal year.
Thirty days after the enactment of the applicable federal appropriation bill for that federal fiscal year.
The secretary is required to submit a plan under subd. 1.
only if the department's most recent estimate of the amount of federal funds that the department will be appropriated under s. 20.395
in the current state fiscal year is less than 95 percent or more than 105 percent of the amount of federal funds shown in the schedule for the appropriations under s. 20.395
in that fiscal year.
After receiving a plan under par. (b) 1.
, the cochairpersons of the joint committee on finance jointly shall determine whether the plan is complete. If the joint committee on finance meets and either approves or modifies and approves a plan submitted under par. (b) 1.
within 14 days after the cochairpersons determine that the plan is complete, the secretary shall implement the plan as approved by the committee. If the joint committee on finance does not meet and either approve or modify and approve a plan submitted under par. (b) 1.
within 14 days after the cochairpersons determine that the plan is complete, the secretary shall implement the proposed plan. If the joint committee on finance approves a plan under s. 84.555
for a state fiscal year, the joint committee on finance may modify a plan implemented under this paragraph for that fiscal year.
(4) Park East Freeway corridor cost sharing. 84.03(4)(a)(a)
The maximum state share of costs for the project for the demolition of the Park East Freeway corridor in Milwaukee County, as provided in an agreement entered into on April 20, 1999, between the city of Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, and the state, shall be $8,000,000, of which $6,800,000 shall be federal interstate cost estimate funds received by the state.
The local share of costs of the project described in par. (a)
shall be not less than the amount of $17,000,000 provided for in the agreement specified under par. (a)
, of which $14,450,000 shall be federal interstate cost estimate funds received by the city or county.
(9) Improving state trunks; landscaping and acquiring wayside areas. 84.03(9)(a)(a)
Subject to s. 86.255
, that part of the appropriation made by s. 20.395 (3)
, not required for the other purposes therein provided, may be used by the department for the improvement and traffic service of the state trunk highway system and connecting highways, for the purchase and operation of equipment, making surveys for locating local road materials, testing of materials, and for other purposes provided in this section, and to match or supplement federal aid for the construction, reconstruction or improvement of the federal aid highway system, secondary or feeder roads, the elimination of hazards at railroad grade crossings and for any other highway purpose for which the state may match or supplement federal aid funds pursuant to any act of congress. Where such funds are used for the improvement of the state trunk highway system or connecting highways or to match or supplement federal aid they shall be expended in accordance with s. 84.06
and any applicable act of congress. Any funds expended pursuant to this paragraph shall be expended by the department on such projects within the provisions of this paragraph, and executed in such manner as the department shall from time to time determine will best meet the needs of travel and best promote the general welfare. Such funds may be used for improvements, within the provisions of this paragraph, independent of or in conjunction with other funds available for such improvements. Subject to s. 86.255
, the requirements of any federal highway act, or regulations issued thereunder, may be met from such appropriation.
In addition to the purposes provided in par. (a)
there may be expended by the department a sum sufficient, not exceeding $20,000, for marking highways as civil defense evacuation routes as requested by the secretary of local affairs and development prior to September 1, 1980 or the secretary of the department of administration on or after September 1, 1980.
(10) Improvement of connecting highways.
All connecting highways shall be constructed or reconstructed by the state in the same manner as portions of the state trunk highway system. It shall not be compulsory for the state to construct or reconstruct any such highway to a greater width than those portions of the state trunk system connecting therewith.
Roadside improvement. 84.04(1)(a)
“Overlook" means a graded terrace, often enclosed by a masonry retaining wall, located on roadside areas where favorable topographic conditions provide an exceptional view or offscape from the road.
“Roadside" means that portion of the right-of-way not occupied by surface courses, curbs, paved gutters, or paved median strips or by other highway structures.
“Roadside improvement" means the application of the principles of landscape architecture to highway planning, design, location, and construction.
“Turnout" means an informal surfaced or unsurfaced parking space for one or more cars or trucks, constructed at selected locations on roadsides in open country for purposes of rest and relaxation.