Acts of municipal authorities under this subsection do not increase the liability of an insurer.
This section does not limit powers otherwise granted to municipalities by other laws of this state.
(2) Razing building that is a public nuisance; in rem procedure. 66.0413(2)(a)2.
“Public nuisance" means a building that, as a result of vandalism or any other reason, has deteriorated or is dilapidated or blighted to the extent that windows, doors or other openings, plumbing or heating fixtures, or facilities or appurtenances of the building are damaged, destroyed or removed so that the building offends the aesthetic character of the immediate neighborhood and produces blight or deterioration.
“Raze a building" means to demolish and remove the building and to restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition.
Notification of nuisance.
If the owner of a building in a city, village or town permits the building to become a public nuisance, the building inspector or other designated officer of the city, village or town shall issue a written notice of the defect that makes the building a public nuisance. The written notice shall be served on the owner of the building as provided under sub. (1) (d)
and shall direct the owner to remedy the defect within 30 days following service.
Failure to remedy; court order to remedy or raze. 66.0413(2)(c)1.
If an owner fails to remedy or improve the defect in accordance with the written notice under par. (b)
within the 30-day period specified in the written notice, the building inspector or other designated officer shall apply to the circuit court of the county in which the building is located for an order determining that the building constitutes a public nuisance. As a part of the application for the order from the circuit court the building inspector or other designated officer shall file a verified petition which recites the giving of written notice, the defect in the building, the owner's failure to comply with the notice and other pertinent facts. A copy of the petition shall be served upon the owner of record or the owner's agent if an agent is in charge of the building and upon the holder of any encumbrance of record under sub. (1) (d)
. The owner shall reply to the petition within 20 days following service upon the owner. Upon application by the building inspector or other designated officer the circuit court shall set promptly the petition for hearing. Testimony shall be taken by the circuit court with respect to the allegations of the petition and denials contained in the verified answer. If the circuit court after hearing the evidence on the petition and answer determines that the building constitutes a public nuisance, the court shall issue promptly an order directing the owner of the building to remedy the defect and to make such repairs and alterations as may be required. The court shall set a reasonable period of time in which the defect shall be remedied and the repairs or alterations completed. A copy of the order shall be served upon the owner as provided in sub. (1) (d)
. The order of the circuit court shall state in the alternative that if the order of the court is not complied with within the time fixed by the court, the court will appoint a receiver or authorize the building inspector or other designated officer to proceed to raze the building under par. (d)
In an action under this subsection, the circuit court before which the action is commenced shall exercise jurisdiction in rem or quasi in rem over the property that is the subject of the action. The owner of record of the property, if known, and all other persons of record holding or claiming any interest in the property shall be made parties defendant, and service of process may be made upon them.
It is not a defense to an action under this subsection that the owner of record of the property is a different person or entity than the owner of record of the property on or after the date the action was commenced if a lis pendens was filed before the change of ownership.
Failure to comply with court order.
If the order of the circuit court under par. (c)
is not complied with within the time fixed by the court under par. (c)
, the court shall authorize the building inspector or other designated officer to raze the building or shall appoint a disinterested person to act as receiver of the property to do either of the following within a reasonable period of time set by the court:
Remedy the defect and make any repairs and alterations necessary to meet the standards required by the building code or any health order. A receiver appointed under this subdivision, with the approval of the circuit court, may borrow money against and mortgage the property held in receivership as security in any amount necessary to remedy the defect and make the repairs and alterations. For the expenses incurred to remedy the defect and make the repairs and alterations necessary under this subdivision, the receiver has a lien upon the property. At the request of and with the approval of the owner, the receiver may sell the property at a price equal to at least the appraised value of the property plus the cost of any repairs made under this subdivision. The selling owner is liable for those costs.
Secure and sell the building to a buyer who demonstrates to the circuit court an ability and intent to rehabilitate the building and to have the building reoccupied in a legal manner.
A receiver appointed under par. (d)
shall collect all rents and profits accruing from the property held in receivership and pay all costs of management, including all general and special real estate taxes or assessments and interest payments on first mortgages on the property. A receiver under par. (d)
shall apply moneys received from the sale of property held in receivership to pay all debts due on the property in the order set by law and shall pay any balance to the selling owner if the circuit court approves.
The circuit court shall set the fees and bond of a receiver appointed under par. (d)
and may discharge the receiver as the court considers appropriate.
Nothing in this subsection relieves the owner of property for which a receiver has been appointed under par. (d)
from any civil or criminal responsibility or liability except that the receiver has civil and criminal responsibility and liability for all matters and acts directly under the receiver's authority or performed at his or her discretion.
If a defect is not remedied and repairs and alterations are not made within the time limit set by the circuit court under par. (d)
, the court shall order that the building inspector or other designated officer proceed to raze the building.
All costs and disbursements to raze a building under this subsection shall be as provided under sub. (1) (f)
“Cost of repairs" includes the estimated cost of repairs that are necessary to comply with applicable building codes, or other ordinances or regulations, governing the repair or renovation of a historic building.
“Historic building" means any building or object listed on, or any building or object within and contributing to a historic district listed on, the national register of historic places in Wisconsin, the state register of historic places or a list of historic places maintained by a municipality.
The state historical society shall notify a municipality of any historic building located in the municipality. If a historic district lies within a municipality, the historical society shall furnish to the municipality a map delineating the boundaries of the district.
If an order is issued under this section to raze and remove a historic building and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition, an application is made for a permit to raze and remove a historic building and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition or a municipality intends to raze and remove a municipally owned historic building and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition, the municipality in which the historic building is located shall notify the state historical society of the order, application or intent. No historic building may be razed and removed nor the site restored to a dust-free and erosion-free condition for 30 days after the notice is given, unless a shorter period is authorized by the state historical society. If the state historical society authorizes a shorter period, however, such a period shall be subject to any applicable local ordinance. During the 30-day period, the state historical society shall have access to the historic building to create or preserve a historic record. If the state historical society completes its creation or preservation of a historic record, or decides not to create or preserve a historic record, before the end of the 30-day period, the society may waive its right to access the building and may authorize the person who intends to raze and remove the building, and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition, to proceed before the end of such period, except that such a person shall be subject to any applicable local ordinance.
If a municipal governing body, inspector of buildings or designated officer determines that the cost of repairs to a historic building would be less than 85 percent of the assessed value of the building divided by the ratio of the assessed value to the recommended value as last published by the department of revenue for the municipality within which the historic building is located, the repairs are presumed reasonable.
(4) First class cities; other provisions. 66.0413(4)(a)(a)
First class cities may adopt by ordinance alternate or additional provisions governing the placarding, closing, razing and removal of a building and the restoration of the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition.
This subsection shall be liberally construed to provide 1st class cities with the largest possible power and leeway of action.
The 30-day time limitation within which an owner may apply to the circuit court for an order restraining a municipality from razing a building applicable to sub. (3) [(now (1) (h)], requires an application to the court within the 30-day period. Service of the application or resultant order need not be made within that period, although a hearing on the merits of the controversy must be held within 20 days. Berkoff v. Milwaukee Department of Building Inspection and Safety Engineering, 47 Wis. 2d 215
, 177 N.W.2d 142
The owner has no option to repair buildings ordered razed when the cost of repair would be unreasonable, i.e., exceeding 50 percent of value. Appleton v. Brunschweiler, 52 Wis. 2d 303
, 190 N.W.2d 545
The statute only creates a presumption that repairs in excess of 50 percent are unreasonable; the property owner has the burden to show that the presumption is unreasonable in the particular case. Posnanski v. City of West Allis, 61 Wis. 2d 461
, 213 N.W.2d 51
The trial court exceeded its authority in modifying a building inspector's order to raze a building by instead ordering repairs necessary to make the building fit for human habitation. Modification of an inspector's order must be made in light of the purpose of protecting the public from unsafe buildings. Donley v. Boettcher, 79 Wis. 2d 393
, 255 N.W.2d 574
Persons affected by a raze order have an exclusive remedy under sub. (3) [now sub. (1) (h)]. Gehr v. Sheboygan, 81 Wis. 2d 117
, 260 N.W.2d 30
A city was properly held in contempt for razing a building protected by a foreclosure judgment. Mohr v. Milwaukee, 106 Wis. 2d 80
, 315 N.W.2d 504
A land contract vendor is not an owner of real estate under this section. City of Milwaukee v. Greenberg, 163 Wis. 2d 28
, 471 N.W.2d 33
The 20-day time limit under sub. (1) (h) is directory rather than mandatory. The trial court shall attempt to hold the hearing within 20 days of the application. If a timely request for judicial substitution is filed that increases the time requirements, the court shall schedule the hearing at the earliest convenient time. Matlin v. City of Sheboygan, 2001 WI App 179
, 247 Wis. 2d 270
, 634 N.W.2d 115
Sub. (1) (h) does not bar a property owner from: 1) asserting claims for torts committed in the carrying out of the raze order that are not premised on the wrongfulness or unreasonableness of the order; 2) challenging the reasonableness of a lien imposed under sub. (1) (f) if one has been imposed; and 3) asserting a claim that salvage and valuable materials have been removed from the real estate for the benefit of the contractor without giving the owner a credit against the charges for the costs of razing and removing under sub. (1) (j). Smith v. Williams, 2001 WI App 285
, 249 Wis. 2d 419
, 638 N.W.2d 635
A constructive total loss occurs following the issuance of a raze order. However, there is no requirement on the city to prove that the property was a total loss prior to issuance of a raze order under an ordinance adopted under sub. (4). A&A Enterprises v. City of Milwaukee, 2008 WI App 43
, 308 Wis. 2d 479
, 747 N.W.2d 751
The phrase “out of repair” in sub. (1) (b) 1. is simple and capable of a common understanding. A building inspector's interpretation of “out of repair” to mean that some aspect of the building required fixing or that the building was non-compliant with the relevant housing codes was a common-sense definition. A building can be “out of repair” for any of a number of reasons, including a sudden fire or rapid exposure to some other damaging condition or element. The phrase connotes no sense that the condition rendering the building “out of repair” has existed for any particular length of time. Auto-Owners Insurance Company v. City of Appleton, 2017 WI App 62
, 378 Wis. 2d 155
, 902 N.W.2d 532
There is no basis in this section for a for a rule that smoke and water damage remediation are not part of the “cost of repair” of a fire. “Cost of repairs” under sub. (1) (c) is not defined, but logically it refers to the cost to remedy all conditions that render the building deficient under sub. (1) (b) 1., including not only those that render the building “out of repair,” but also those that affect the suitability of the building for human habitation. Auto-Owners Insurance Company v. City of Appleton, 2017 WI App 62
, 378 Wis. 2d 155
, 902 N.W.2d 532
There was no constitutional “taking" when tenants were ordered to temporarily vacate their uninhabitable dwelling to permit repairs pursuant to the housing code. Devines v. Maier, 728 F.2d 876
Small wireless facilities. 66.0414(1)(a)
“Antenna” means communications equipment that transmits and receives electromagnetic radio signals and is used in the provision of wireless services.
“Antenna equipment” or “wireless equipment” means equipment, switches, wiring, cabling, power sources, shelters, or cabinets associated with an antenna, located at the same fixed location as the antenna, and, when collocated on a structure, is mounted or installed at the same time as such antenna.
“Antenna facility” means an antenna and associated antenna equipment, including ground-mounted antenna equipment.
“Applicable codes” means the state electrical wiring code, as defined in s. 101.80 (4)
, the state plumbing code specified in s. 145.13
[promulgated under s. 145.02 (2) (a)
], the fire prevention code under ch. SPS 314
, Wis. Adm. Code, the Wisconsin commercial building code under chs. SPS 361
, Wis. Adm. Code, the Wisconsin uniform dwelling code under chs. SPS 320
, Wis. Adm. Code, and local amendments to those codes enacted solely to address imminent threats of destruction of property or injury to persons.
NOTE: The correct cross reference is shown in brackets. Corrective legislation is pending.
“Applicant” means a wireless provider that submits an application.
“Application” means an application for a permit under this section to collocate a small wireless facility or to install, modify, or replace a utility pole.
collocate on,” or “collocation” means the placement, mounting, replacement, modification, operation, or maintenance of a small wireless facility on, or of ground-mounted antenna equipment adjacent to, a structure.
“Communications facilities” means the set of equipment and network components, including wires and cables and associated facilities, used by a communications service provider to provide communications service.
“Communications network” means a network used to provide a communications service.
“Communications service” means cable service, as defined in 47 USC 522
(6), telecommunications service, as defined in 47 USC 153
(53), information service, as defined in 47 USC 153
(24), or wireless service.
“Communications service provider” means a person that provides communications service.
“Facility” means an antenna facility or a structure.
“Governmental pole” means a utility pole that is owned or operated by the state or by a political subdivision in a right-of-way.
“Investor-owned electric utility” means a public utility whose purpose is the generation, transmission, delivery, or furnishing of electric power but does not include a public utility owned and operated wholly by a municipality or a cooperative association organized under ch. 185
“Micro wireless facility” means a small wireless facility that does not exceed 24 inches in length, 15 inches in width, and 12 inches in height and that has no exterior antenna longer than 11 inches.
“Permit” means written authorization required by the state or a political subdivision to perform an action, or initiate, continue, or complete a project.
“Political subdivision” means any city, village, town, or county.
“Right-of-way” means the area on, below, or above a highway, as defined in s. 340.01 (22)
, other than a federal interstate highway; sidewalk; utility easement, other than a utility easement for a cooperative association organized under ch. 185
for purposes of providing or furnishing heat, light, power, or water to its members only; or other similar property, including property owned or controlled by the department of transportation.
“Small wireless facility” means a wireless facility to which all of the following apply:
The wireless facility is mounted on a structure 50 feet or less in height including any antenna.
The wireless facility is mounted on a structure no more than 10 percent taller than any other adjacent structure.
The wireless facility does not increase the height of an existing structure on which the wireless facility is located to a height of more than 50 feet or by 10 percent, whichever is greater.
Each antenna associated with the deployment of the wireless facility, excluding associated antenna equipment, is no more than 3 cubic feet in volume.
All other wireless equipment associated with the wireless facility specified in subd. 1.
, including the wireless equipment associated with the antenna and any preexisting associated equipment on the structure, is no more than 28 cubic feet in volume.
The wireless facility does not result in human exposure to radio frequency in excess of the applicable safety standards specified in 47 CFR 1.1307
Except in par. (zp)
, “structure” means a utility pole or wireless support structure, whether or not it has an existing antenna facility.
“Technically feasible” means that by virtue of engineering or spectrum usage the proposed placement for a small wireless facility, or its design, concealment measures, or site location can be implemented without a reduction in the functionality of the small wireless facility.
“Utility pole” means a pole that is used in whole or in part by a communications service provider; used for electric distribution, lighting, traffic control, signage, or a similar function; or used for the collocation of small wireless facilities. “Utility pole” does not include a wireless support structure or electric transmission structure.
“Utility pole for designated services” means a utility pole owned or operated in a right-of-way by the state, a political subdivision, or a utility district that is designed to, or used to, carry electric distribution lines, or cables or wires for telecommunications, cable, or electric service.
“Wireless facility” means an antenna facility at a fixed location that enables wireless services between user equipment and a communications network, and includes all of the following:
Radio transceivers, antennas, or coaxial, metallic, or fiber-optic cable located on, in, under, or otherwise adjacent to a utility pole or wireless support structure.
Equipment that is comparable to equipment specified in this subdivision regardless of technical configuration.