Return of action to substituted judge.
Upon the filing of an agreement signed by the defendant or defendant's attorney and by the prosecuting attorney, the substituted judge and the substituting judge, the criminal action and all pertinent records shall be transferred back to the substituted judge.
NOTE: See the 1979-80 Statutes for notes and annotations relating to s. 971.20 prior to its repeal and recreation by ch. 137, laws of 1981.
Judicial Council Note, 1981: Section 971.20 has been revised to clarify its objective of allowing defendants in criminal trials one substitution of the assigned judge upon making a timely request. The statute is not to be used for delay nor for “judge shopping," but is to ensure a fair and impartial trial for the defendants. The statute does not govern removal for cause of the assigned judge through an affidavit of prejudice.
Sub. (2) clarifies that the defendant has a right to only one substitution of judge in a criminal action, unless an appellate court orders a new trial. Prior sub. (2) so provided, but the effect of this provision was unclear in light of the introductory phrase of prior sub. (3).
Sub. (3) allows the defendant's right of substitution to be used against the judge assigned to the preliminary examination and specifies the timing of these requests.
Sub. (4) allows the defendant's right of substitution to be used against the judge originally assigned to preside at trial, specifying the timing of these requests.
Sub. (5) allows the defendant's right of substitution to be used against a judge assigned to preside at trial in place of the judge originally assigned, specifying the timing of these requests.
Sub. (6) clarifies that all defendants in a single action must join in a substitution request.
Sub. (7) allows a substitution request to be made upon appellate remand for a new trial, irrespective of whether a substitution of judge was requested prior to the appeal. It is the only exception to the rule of one substitution per action. The time limit for the request is tied to filing of the remittitur, in accordance with Rohl v. State, 97 Wis. 2d 514
(1980). [LRB NOTE: Senate Amendment 1 revised this subsection to also allow the substitution request to be made upon appellate remand for new sentencing proceedings.]
Sub. (8) provides for the determination of the timeliness and propriety of the substitution request to be made by the chief judge if the trial judge fails to do so within 7 days.
Sub. (9) is prior sub. (2), amended to allow the judge whose substitution has been requested to accept any plea. The prior statute allowed the judge to accept only pleas of not guilty. This revision promotes judicial economy by allowing the judge whose substitution has been requested to accept a guilty or no contest plea tendered by the defendant before the action is reassigned. Defendants preferring to have guilty or no contest pleas accepted by the substituting judge may obtain that result by standing mute or pleading not guilty until after the action has been reassigned.
Sub. (10) is prior sub. (5).
Sub. (11) is prior sub. (6). [Bill 163-S]
When an appellate court remands for the exercise of discretion in ordering restitution, it has not remanded for a sentencing proceeding, and the defendant is not entitled to substitution under sub. (7). State v. Foley, 153 Wis. 2d 748
, 451 N.W.2d 796
(Ct. App. 1989).
When an initial appearance is conducted before the judge assigned to hear the matter, strict application of the filing deadline is appropriate. When the intake system does not provide adequate notice of the assigned judge prior to arraignment, deadlines are relaxed to allow the defendant to intelligently exercise the right. Tinti v. Waukesha County Circuit Court, 159 Wis. 2d 783
, 464 N.W.2d 853
(Ct. App. 1990).
Once a judge is substituted, that judge may only act in the case as specified in sub. (9). Understandable inadvertent appearance before the substituted judge is not a waiver of the substitution. State v. Austin, 171 Wis. 2d 251
, 490 N.W.2d 780
(Ct. App. 1992).
When a case is assigned to a newly appointed judge prior to the appointee's taking the judicial oath, the time limit to request a substitution commences on the date the appointee becomes a judge. Strong v. Dane County Circuit Court, 184 Wis. 2d 223
, 416 N.W.2d 451
(Ct. App. 1994).
There is no “trial court" under sub. (4) until after a bindover. A motion to reduce bail prior to the bindover was not a motion to the trial court that prevented filing a request for substitution. Mace v. Green Lake Co. Circuit Court, 193 Wis. 2d 208
, 532 N.W.2d 720
A defendant who is charged jointly with another defendant may not obtain substitution of a judge under sub. (6) when the codefendant is not yet before the court. Sub. (6) applies in all multiple defendant actions when a codefendant is unavailable to join or refuses to join a substitution request. Garibay v. Circuit Court for Kenosha County, 2002 WI App 164
, 256 Wis. 2d 438
, 647 N.W.2d 455
There is no requirement under this section that a judge inform a defendant of the right to substitute a judge or that a judge provide facts bearing on a defendant's exercise of the right. State v. Tappa, 2002 WI App 303
, 259 Wis. 2d 402
, 655 N.W.2d 223
When the original judge assigned to a case is later reassigned back to the case, the original judge is not a “new judge" under sub. (5), but remains the judge “originally assigned" under sub. (4). The reassignment does not create a second opportunity to substitute the original judge. State v. Bohannon, 2013 WI App 87
, 349 Wis. 2d 368
, 835 N.W.2d 262
When the defendant persisted with his substitution request throughout the proceedings and did not follow the procedure under sub. (11) for abandoning his substitution request, the circuit court erred in presiding over the defendant's trial, sentencing, and postconviction motions. Harmless error analysis did not apply. State v. Harrison, 2015 WI 5
, 360 Wis. 2d 246
, 858 N.W.2d 372
Under the unique circumstances in this case, when a defendant followed a circuit court's instruction to defer filing a request for substitution of a judge until after counsel was appointed, strict compliance with the 20-day deadline for filing a request for substitution after remittitur was not warranted. Although the substitution motion was not timely filed under the statute, it was timely filed in this case because the circuit court in essence extended the deadline until after trial counsel was appointed. State v. Zimbal, 2017 WI 59
, 375 Wis. 2d 643
, 896 N.W.2d 327
Change of place of trial. 971.22(1)(1)
The defendant may move for a change of the place of trial on the ground that an impartial trial cannot be had in the county. The motion shall be made at arraignment, but it may be made thereafter for cause.
The motion shall be in writing and supported by affidavit which shall state evidentiary facts showing the nature of the prejudice alleged. The district attorney may file counter affidavits.
If the court determines that there exists in the county where the action is pending such prejudice that a fair trial cannot be had, it shall order that the trial be held in any county where an impartial trial can be had. Only one change may be granted under this subsection. The judge who orders the change in the place of trial shall preside at the trial. Preliminary matters prior to trial may be conducted in either county at the discretion of the court. The judge shall determine where the defendant, if he or she is in custody, shall be held and where the record shall be kept. If the criteria under s. 971.225 (1) (a)
exist, the court may proceed under s. 971.225 (2)
History: 1981 c. 115
Relevant factors as to whether a change of venue should have been granted include: 1) the inflammatory nature of publicity concerning the crime; 2) the degree to which adverse publicity permeated the area from which the jury would be drawn; 3) the timing and specificity of the publicity; 4) the degree of care exercised; 5) the amount of difficulty encountered in selecting the jury panel; 6) the extent to which the jurors were familiar with the publicity; 7) the defendants use of challenges available in voir dire 8) the state's participation in adverse publicity; 9) the severity of the offense charged; and 10) the verdict returned. State v. Hebard, 50 Wis. 2d 408
, 184 N.W.2d 156
While actual prejudice need not be shown, there must be a showing of a reasonable probability of prejudice inherent in the situation. Gibson v. State, 55 Wis. 2d 110
, 197 N.W.2d 813
The timing, specificity, inflammatory nature, and degree of permeation of publicity is extremely important in determining the likelihood of prejudice in the community. State ex rel. Hussong v. Froelich, 62 Wis. 2d 577
, 215 N.W.2d 390
When news stories concerning the crime were accurate informational articles of a nature that would not cause prejudice and 4 months had elapsed between the publication of the news stories and the trial, it tended to indicate little or no prejudice against the defendant. Jones v. State, 66 Wis. 2d 105
, 223 N.W.2d 889
There was no abuse of discretion in not changing the venue of a prosecution for 1st-degree murder when the transcript of the hearing on the issuance of the arrest warrant was sealed, the preliminary examination and other hearings were closed to the public and press, the police and prosecutor refused to divulge any facts to the public and press, and press reports were generally free from the details of incriminating evidence, straightforward, and not incendiary. State v. Dean, 67 Wis. 2d 513
, 227 N.W.2d 712
Only the defendant may waive the right to venue where the crime was committed. State v. Mendoza, 80 Wis. 2d 122
, 258 N.W.2d 260
The right to venue where the crime occurred is not a fundamental right of a criminal defendant. The decision to move for a change of venue is a tactical judgment delegated to counsel that does not require the defendant's personal concurrence. State v. Hereford, 224 Wis. 2d 605
, 592 N.W.2d 247
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-1270
Change of place of trial for certain violations. 971.223(1)(1)
In an action for a violation of chs. 5
, subch. III of ch. 13
, or subch. III of ch. 19
, or for a violation of any other law arising from or in relation to the official functions of the subject of the investigation or any matter that involves elections, ethics, or lobbying regulation under chs. 5
, subch. III of ch. 13
, or subch. III of ch. 19
, a defendant who is a resident of this state may move to change the place of trial to the county where the offense was committed. The motion shall be in writing.
The court shall grant a motion under this section if the court determines that the county where the offense was committed is different than the county where the defendant resides. If there is more than one county where the offense was committed, the court shall determine which of the counties where the offense was committed will be the place of trial. The judge who orders the change in the place of trial shall preside at the trial and the jury shall be chosen from the county where the trial will be held. Preliminary matters prior to trial may be conducted in either county at the discretion of the court. The judge shall determine where the record shall be kept and, if the defendant is in custody, where the defendant shall be held.
This section does not affect which prosecutor has responsibility under s. 978.05 (1)
to prosecute criminal actions arising from violations under sub. (1)
This section does not affect the application of s. 971.22
. In actions under sub. (1)
, the court may enter an order under s. 971.225
only if the order is agreed to by the defendant.
History: 2007 a. 1
Jury from another county. 971.225(1)(a)
The court has decided to sequester the jurors after the commencement of the trial, as provided in s. 972.12
The estimated costs to the county appear to be less using the procedure under this section than using the procedure for holding the trial in another county.
If the court decides to proceed under this section it shall follow the procedure under s. 971.22
until the jury is chosen in the 2nd county. At that time, the proceedings shall return to the original county using the jurors selected in the 2nd county. The original county shall reimburse the 2nd county for all applicable costs under s. 814.22
History: 1981 c. 115
; 1991 a. 39
; 2007 a. 1
Discovery and inspection. 971.23(1)(1)
What a district attorney must disclose to a defendant.
Upon demand, the district attorney shall, within a reasonable time before trial, disclose to the defendant or his or her attorney and permit the defendant or his or her attorney to inspect and copy or photograph all of the following materials and information, if it is within the possession, custody or control of the state:
Any written or recorded statement concerning the alleged crime made by the defendant, including the testimony of the defendant in a secret proceeding under s. 968.26
or before a grand jury, and the names of witnesses to the defendant's written statements.
A written summary of all oral statements of the defendant which the district attorney plans to use in the course of the trial and the names of witnesses to the defendant's oral statements.
Evidence obtained in the manner described under s. 968.31 (2) (b)
, if the district attorney intends to use the evidence at trial.
A list of all witnesses and their addresses whom the district attorney intends to call at the trial. This paragraph does not apply to rebuttal witnesses or those called for impeachment only.
Any relevant written or recorded statements of a witness named on a list under par. (d)
, including any audiovisual recording of an oral statement of a child under s. 908.08
, any reports or statements of experts made in connection with the case or, if an expert does not prepare a report or statement, a written summary of the expert's findings or the subject matter of his or her testimony, and the results of any physical or mental examination, scientific test, experiment or comparison that the district attorney intends to offer in evidence at trial.
The criminal record of a prosecution witness which is known to the district attorney.
Any physical evidence that the district attorney intends to offer in evidence at the trial.
What a defendant must disclose to the district attorney.
Upon demand, the defendant or his or her attorney shall, within a reasonable time before trial, disclose to the district attorney and permit the district attorney to inspect and copy or photograph all of the following materials and information, if it is within the possession, custody or control of the defendant:
A list of all witnesses, other than the defendant, whom the defendant intends to call at trial, together with their addresses. This paragraph does not apply to rebuttal witnesses or those called for impeachment only.
Any relevant written or recorded statements of a witness named on a list under par. (a)
, including any reports or statements of experts made in connection with the case or, if an expert does not prepare a report or statement, a written summary of the expert's findings or the subject matter of his or her testimony, and including the results of any physical or mental examination, scientific test, experiment or comparison that the defendant intends to offer in evidence at trial.
The criminal record of a defense witness, other than the defendant, which is known to the defense attorney.
Any physical evidence that the defendant intends to offer in evidence at the trial.
Comment or instruction on failure to call witness.
No comment or instruction regarding the failure to call a witness at the trial shall be made or given if the sole basis for such comment or instruction is the fact the name of the witness appears upon a list furnished pursuant to this section.
On motion of a party subject to s. 971.31 (5)
, the court may order the production of any item of physical evidence which is intended to be introduced at the trial for scientific analysis under such terms and conditions as the court prescribes.
Psychiatric testing of victims or witnesses.
In a prosecution of s. 940.225
, or 948.025
or of any other crime if the court determines that the underlying conduct was sexually motivated, as defined in s. 980.01 (5)
, the court may not order any witness or victim, as a condition of allowing testimony, to submit to a psychiatric or psychological examination to assess his or her credibility.
Upon motion of a party, the court may at any time order that discovery, inspection or the listing of witnesses required under this section be denied, restricted or deferred, or make other appropriate orders. If the district attorney or defense counsel certifies that to list a witness may subject the witness or others to physical or economic harm or coercion, the court may order that the deposition of the witness be taken pursuant to s. 967.04 (2)
. The name of the witness need not be divulged prior to the taking of such deposition. If the witness becomes unavailable or changes his or her testimony, the deposition shall be admissible at trial as substantive evidence.
Interviews of victims by defense.
Except as provided in s. 967.04
, the defendant or his or her attorney may not compel a victim of a crime to submit to a pretrial interview or deposition.
In camera proceedings.
Either party may move for an in camera inspection by the court of any document required to be disclosed under sub. (1)
for the purpose of masking or deleting any material which is not relevant to the case being tried. The court shall mask or delete any irrelevant material.
Continuing duty to disclose.
If, subsequent to compliance with a requirement of this section, and prior to or during trial, a party discovers additional material or the names of additional witnesses requested which are subject to discovery, inspection or production under this section, the party shall promptly notify the other party of the existence of the additional material or names.
The court shall exclude any witness not listed or evidence not presented for inspection or copying required by this section, unless good cause is shown for failure to comply. The court may in appropriate cases grant the opposing party a recess or a continuance.
In addition to or in lieu of any sanction specified in par. (a)
, a court may, subject to sub. (3)
, advise the jury of any failure or refusal to disclose material or information required to be disclosed under sub. (1)
, or of any untimely disclosure of material or information required to be disclosed under sub. (1)
If the defendant intends to rely upon an alibi as a defense, the defendant shall give notice to the district attorney at the arraignment or at least 30 days before trial stating particularly the place where the defendant claims to have been when the crime is alleged to have been committed together with the names and addresses of witnesses to the alibi, if known. If at the close of the state's case the defendant withdraws the alibi or if at the close of the defendant's case the defendant does not call some or any of the alibi witnesses, the state shall not comment on the defendant's withdrawal or on the failure to call some or any of the alibi witnesses. The state shall not call any alibi witnesses not called by the defendant for the purpose of impeaching the defendant's credibility with regard to the alibi notice. Nothing in this section may prohibit the state from calling said alibi witnesses for any other purpose.
In default of such notice, no evidence of the alibi shall be received unless the court, for cause, orders otherwise.
The court may enlarge the time for filing a notice of alibi as provided in par. (a)
Within 20 days after receipt of the notice of alibi, or such other time as the court orders, the district attorney shall furnish the defendant notice in writing of the names and addresses, if known, of any witnesses whom the state proposes to offer in rebuttal to discredit the defendant's alibi. In default of such notice, no rebuttal evidence on the alibi issue shall be received unless the court, for cause, orders otherwise.
A witness list required under par. (a)
shall be provided in addition to a witness list required under sub. (1) (d)
or (2m) (a)
, and a witness disclosed on a list under sub. (1) (d)
or (2m) (a)
shall be included on a list under par. (a)
if the witness is required to be disclosed under par. (a)
Deoxyribonucleic acid evidence. 971.23(9)(b)
Notwithstanding sub. (1) (e)
or (2m) (am)
, if either party intends to submit deoxyribonucleic acid profile evidence at a trial to prove or disprove the identity of a person, the party seeking to introduce the evidence shall notify the other party of the intent to introduce the evidence in writing by mail at least 45 days before the date set for trial; and shall provide the other party, within 15 days of request, the material identified under sub. (1) (e)
or (2m) (am)
, whichever is appropriate, that relates to the evidence.
The court shall exclude deoxyribonucleic acid profile evidence at trial, if the notice and production deadlines under par. (b)
are not met, except the court may waive the 45 day notice requirement or may extend the 15 day production requirement upon stipulation of the parties, or for good cause, if the court finds that no party will be prejudiced by the waiver or extension. The court may in appropriate cases grant the opposing party a recess or continuance.
Payment of copying costs in cases involving indigent defendants.
When the state public defender or a private attorney appointed under s. 977.08
requests copies, in any format, of any item that is discoverable under this section, the state public defender shall pay any fee charged for the copies from the appropriation account under s. 20.550 (1) (a)
. If the person providing copies under this section charges the state public defender a fee for the copies, the fee may not exceed the applicable maximum fee for copies of discoverable materials that is established by rule under s. 977.02 (9)