It is unlawful to sell, offer or expose for sale, or have in possession with intent to sell, any butter at retail unless it has been graded. Butter shall be graded as follows:
Grade, Wisconsin, undergrade — all butter below Wisconsin B.
United States AA, A, and B grades shall be accepted in lieu of the corresponding Wisconsin AA, A, and B grades, but all United States grades below B shall, for the purpose of this section, correspond to Wisconsin undergrade.
As used in this section, score or grade means the grading of butter by its examination for flavor and aroma, body and texture, color, salt, package and by the use of other tests or procedures approved by the department for ascertaining the quality of butter in whole or in part.
Details for methods and procedures to be used for ascertaining quality, for labeling, and for arbitrating disputes with respect to grades, shall be developed by the department as a result of public hearings to be held at a convenient location in the state.
Butter from outside of the state sold within the state shall be provided with a label which indicates that it complies with the state grade standards as provided in this section and which indicates the grade in a manner equivalent to the requirements for butter manufactured and sold within the state.
Butter that carries the state grade labels shall be graded by butter graders licensed under s. 97.175
No person, for himself or herself, or as an agent, shall advertise the sale of any butter at a stated price, unless the grade of the butter is set forth in such advertisement in not less than 10-point type.
History: 1977 c. 29
s. 1650m (4)
; 1983 a. 131
; Stats. 1983 s. 97.176; 1991 a. 39
; 1993 a. 492
See also ch. ATCP 85
, Wis. adm. code.
Wisconsin's butter-grading law does not violate the due process clause, the equal protection clause, or the dormant commerce clause. This section is rationally related to the state's legitimate interest in consumer protection and does not discriminate against out-of-state businesses. Minerva Dairy, Inc. v. Harsdorf, 905 F.3d 1047
Cheese; grading; labeling. 97.177(1)(1)
The department shall by rule adopt standards for grades of cheese manufactured in Wisconsin.
Cheese which carries a state grade must be graded by a cheese grader licensed under s. 97.175
and must conform to the standards for the grade. Graded cheese must be plainly labeled to indicate the grade of the cheese and the license number of the cheese grader.
Cheese manufactured in Wisconsin must be labeled on either the cheese itself or the container at the factory where it is manufactured. The label must remain on the cheese until the cheese is used in a different food manufacturing process or relabeled by the buyer for later sale. The label must contain all of the following:
The factory number designated by the department.
The number of the vat in which the cheese was manufactured if more than one vat of cheese was manufactured in the factory on the same day.
The department may adopt rules for the administration of this section.
History: 1983 a. 131
See also ch. ATCP 81
, Wis. adm. code.
Oleomargarine regulations. 97.18(1)(a)
For the purposes of this section “oleomargarine" or “margarine" includes oleomargarine, margarine, butterine and other similar substances, fats and fat compounds sufficiently adaptable to the ordinary uses of butter, to lead readily to use as an alternative to butter, but this section shall not apply to lard, cream cheese, cheese food compounds, nor to any other dairy product made exclusively of cow's milk or milk solids with or without added vitamins, if such product is sold or distributed in such manner and form as will clearly distinguish it from butter. Nor shall this section apply to shortenings not churned or emulsified in milk or cream or having a melting point of 112 degrees Fahrenheit or more as determined by the capillary tube method unless there is sold or given away with such shortening any compound which, when mixed with such shortening, makes oleomargarine, butterine or similar substances.
“Colored oleomargarine" or “colored margarine" is oleomargarine or margarine having a tint or shade containing more than 1 6/10 degrees of yellow or of yellow and red collectively but with an excess of yellow over red, as measured in terms of Lovibond tintometer scales or its equivalent.
No person shall sell, offer or expose for sale at retail any oleomargarine or margarine unless:
Such oleomargarine or margarine is packaged;
The net weight of the contents of any package sold in a retail establishment is one pound;
There appears on the label of the package the word “oleomargarine" or “margarine" in type or lettering at least as large as any other type or lettering on the label in a color of print which clearly contrasts with its background, and a full accurate statement of the ingredients contained in the oleomargarine or margarine; and
Each part of the contents of the package is contained in a wrapper or separate container which bears the word “oleomargarine" or “margarine" in type or lettering not smaller than 20-point type.
The serving of colored oleomargarine or margarine at a public eating place as a substitute for table butter is prohibited unless it is ordered by the customer.
The serving of oleomargarine or margarine to students, patients or inmates of any state institutions as a substitute for table butter is prohibited, except that such substitution may be ordered by the institution superintendent when necessary for the health of a specific patient or inmate, if directed by the physician in charge of the patient or inmate.
Any person who violates any provision of this section may be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or imprisoned not more than 3 months or both; and for each subsequent offense may be fined not less than $500 nor more than $1,000 or imprisoned in the county jail not less than 6 months nor more than one year.
Dairy plants. 97.20(1)(1)
In this section:
“Dairy plant" means a processing plant, receiving station, or transfer station.
“Dairy product" means any of the following:
Milk or any product or by-product derived solely from milk.
Hooved or camelid mammals' milk or any product or by-product derived solely from hooved or camelid mammals' milk.
An item that fails to meet a definition or standard of identity specified in subd. 3.
solely because the item contains hooved or camelid mammals' milk or milk from goats or sheep instead of or in addition to milk from cows.
A product that is ready to eat, sell, distribute, or market and that is made solely of 2 or more of the items under subds. 1.
“Grade A dairy plant" means a dairy plant required to hold a permit under sub. (3)
“Hooved or camelid mammal" includes water buffalo, yaks, and other bovine species; camels, llamas, alpacas, and other camelid species; and horses, donkeys, and other equine species.
“Hooved or camelid mammals' milk" means the lacteal secretion, practically free of colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy hooved or camelid mammals.
“Processing plant" means a facility engaged in pasteurizing or manufacturing dairy products, or processing dairy products into other dairy products, for sale or distribution.
“Receiving station" means a facility which is designed for the receipt and bulk storage of milk, and which is used to receive or store milk in bulk. “Receiving station" does not include a processing plant or a facility used to distribute pasteurized milk in bottled or packaged form to consumers.
“Transfer station" means a facility which is designed and used solely to transfer milk from one bulk transport vehicle to another without intervening storage.
Except as provided in par. (e)
, no person, including this state, may operate a dairy plant without a valid license issued by the department for that dairy plant. A dairy plant license expires on April 30 annually, except that a license issued for a new dairy plant on or after January 30 but before May 1 expires on April 30 of the following year. A dairy plant license is not transferable between persons or locations.
An application for a dairy plant license shall be made on a form provided by the department and shall be accompanied by each applicable fee required under subs. (2c)
. The application shall include all information reasonably required by the department for purposes of licensing. The application shall state whether the dairy plant is a processing plant, receiving station or transfer station, and shall describe the nature of any processing operations conducted at the dairy plant.
Issuance or renewal of license.
The department may not issue or renew a dairy plant license unless all of the following conditions are met prior to licensing:
The license applicant pays all fees that are due and payable by the applicant under subs. (2c)
, as set forth in a statement from the department. The department shall refund a fee paid under protest if the department determines that the fee was not due and payable as a condition of licensing under this subsection.
The license applicant has filed all financial information required under s. 126.44
and any security required under s. 126.47
. If an applicant has not filed all financial information under s. 126.44
and any security required under s. 126.47
, the department may issue a conditional dairy plant license under s. 93.06 (8)
which prohibits the licensed operator from purchasing milk or fluid milk products from milk producers or their agents, but allows the operator to purchase milk or fluid milk products from other sources.
If the dairy plant is a new dairy plant, the department has inspected the dairy plant for compliance with this chapter and rules promulgated under this chapter.
A dairy plant license under this section is not required for:
A farm manufacturing or processing dairy products solely for consumption by the owner or operator of the farm, or members of the household or nonpaying guests or employees.
The retail preparation and processing of meals for sale directly to consumers or through vending machines, if the preparation and processing is covered under a license issued under s. 97.605
A retail food establishment licensed under s. 97.30
if the establishment processes dairy products solely for retail sale at the establishment.
A dairy plant that is exempted from licensing by department rule.
A food processing plant licensed under s. 97.29
that processes dairy products into a prepared food that is not a dairy product if the dairy products used by the food processing plant are manufactured at a dairy plant from ingredients that are pasteurized or are produced under other processes that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the food safety hazards associated with the dairy products, including aseptically processed foods, high acid foods, heat treated foods, aged foods, cold pack foods, and similarly processed foods.
No dairy plant may add a new category of dairy plant operations during the time period for which a dairy plant license was issued unless the dairy plant first notifies the department and obtains written authorization for the new category of operations. In this paragraph, “new category of operations" includes the manufacture or processing of any of the following which was not identified on the dairy plant's most recent license application:
Annual license fee.
An applicant for a dairy plant license shall pay an annual license fee specified under par. (b)
An applicant for a license to operate a dairy plant that operated during the previous calendar year shall pay the basic annual license fee plus the supplementary dairy plant license fee based on the amount of milk that was delivered to the dairy plant from milk producers in the previous calendar year, whether or not that particular applicant operated the dairy plant during the previous calendar year.
An applicant for a license to operate a dairy plant that has not been operated in the previous calendar year shall pay the basic annual license fee plus the supplementary dairy plant license fee that is established by department rule.
License fee amounts.
Unless otherwise established by department rule, the annual license fees required under par. (a)
are a basic annual license fee of $80 for each dairy plant plus:
For a grade A processing plant, a supplementary annual license fee of $650 if the plant received more than 2,000,000 pounds of milk from milk producers or of $500 if the plant received 2,000,000 pounds or less of milk from milk producers.
For a processing plant that is not a grade A processing plant and that annually manufactures or processes more than 1,000,000 pounds of dairy products or more than 200,000 gallons of frozen dairy products, a supplementary annual license fee of $270.
For a grade A receiving station, a supplementary annual license fee of $250.
Surcharge for operating without license.
An applicant for a dairy plant license shall pay a license fee surcharge if the department determines that within one year before submitting the license application, the applicant operated the dairy plant without a license in violation of sub. (2)
. The amount of the surcharge is $100, or $500 if the dairy plant operator procures milk or fluid milk products from milk producers or their agents. Payment of this license fee surcharge does not relieve the applicant of any other civil or criminal liability that results from the unlicensed operation of the dairy plant, but does not constitute evidence of any violation of law.
Monthly procurement fee.
A dairy plant operator shall pay a milk procurement fee on or before the 25th day of each month in the amount specified under par. (b)
The operator of a dairy plant that operated during the month preceding the month when the payment is due shall pay a milk procurement fee based on the amount of milk that was delivered to the dairy plant from milk producers in the month preceding the month when the payment is due, whether or not that particular dairy plant operator operated the dairy plant during the month preceding the month when the payment is due.
The operator of a dairy plant that has not been operated in the month preceding the month when the payment is due shall pay a milk procurement fee in the month when the payment is due that is established by department rule.
Amount of fees.
The department shall specify the amount of milk procurement fees by rule.