A market data or sales approach was proper when 94 percent of machines were leased and only 6 percent were sold. An income capitalization approach has been used only when no sales exist. Xerox Corp. v. Department of Revenue, 114 Wis. 2d 522
, 339 N.W.2d 357
(Ct. App. 1983).
Legislative intent; department of revenue to supply information.
The assessor shall exercise particular care so that personal property as a class on the assessment rolls bears the same relation to statutory value as real property as a class. To assist the assessor in determining the true relationship between real estate and personal property the department of revenue shall make available to local assessors information including figures indicating the relationship between personal property and real property on the last assessment rolls.
Taxpayer examined under oath or to submit return. 70.35(1)(1)
To determine the amount and value of any personal property for which any person, firm, or corporation should be assessed, any assessor may examine such person or the managing agent or officer of any firm or corporation under oath as to all such items of personal property, the taxable value thereof as defined in s. 70.34
if the property is taxable. In the alternative the assessor may require such person, firm, or corporation to submit a return of such personal property and of the taxable value thereof. There shall be annexed to such return the declaration of such person or of the managing agent or officer of such firm or corporation that the statements therein contained are true.
The return shall be made and all the information therein requested given by such person on a form prescribed by the assessor with the approval of the department of revenue which shall provide suitable schedules for such information bearing on value as the department deems necessary to enable the assessor to determine the true cash value of the taxable personal property that is owned or in the possession of such person on January 1 as provided in s. 70.10
. The return may contain methods of deriving assessable values from book values and for the conversion of book values to present values, and a statement as to the accounting method used. No person shall be required to take detailed physical inventory for the purpose of making the return required by this section.
Each return shall be filed with the assessor on or before March 1 of the year in which the assessment provided by s. 70.10
is made. The assessor, for good cause, may allow a reasonable extension of time for filing the return. All returns filed under this section shall be the confidential records of the assessor's office, except that the returns shall be available for use before the board of review as provided in this chapter. No return required under this section is controlling on the assessor in any respect in the assessment of any property.
Any person, firm or corporation who refuses to so testify or who fails, neglects or refuses to make and file the return of personal property required by this section shall be denied any right of abatement by the board of review on account of the assessment of such personal property unless such person, firm or corporation shall make such return to such board of review together with a statement of the reasons for the failure to make and file the return in the manner and form required by this section.
In the event that the assessor or the board of review should desire further evidence they may call upon other persons as witnesses to give evidence under oath as to the items and value of the personal property of any such person, firm or corporation.
The return required by this section shall not be demanded by the assessor from any farmer, or from any firm or corporation assessed under ch. 76
or from any person, firm or corporation whose personal property is not used for the production of income in industry, trade, commerce or professional practice.
This section shall not be applicable to farm products as defined by s. 93.01 (5)
when owned and possessed by the original producer.
See also s. Tax 12.10
, Wis. adm. code.
False statement; duty of district attorney. 70.36(1)(1)
Any person in this state owning or holding any personal property that is subject to assessment, individually or as agent, trustee, guardian, personal representative, assignee, or receiver or in some other representative capacity, who intentionally makes a false statement to the assessor of that person's assessment district or to the board of review of the assessment district with respect to the property, or who omits any property from any return required to be made under s. 70.35
, with the intent of avoiding the payment of the just and proportionate taxes on the property, shall forfeit the sum of $10 for every $100 or major fraction of $100 so withheld from the knowledge of the assessor or board of review.
It is hereby made the duty of the district attorney of any county, upon complaint made to the district attorney by the assessor or by a member of the board of review of the assessment district in which it is alleged that property has been so withheld from the knowledge of such assessor or board of review, or not included in any return required by s. 70.35
, to investigate the case forthwith and bring an action in the name of the state against the person, firm or corporation so complained of. All forfeitures collected under the provisions of this section shall be paid into the treasury of the taxation district in which such property had its situs for taxation.
The word assessor whenever used in ss. 70.35
shall, in 1st class cities, be deemed to refer also to the commissioner of assessments of any such city and, where applicable, shall be deemed also to refer to the department of revenue responsible for the manufacturing property assessment under s. 70.995
Notice of changed assessment.
When the assessor assesses any taxable real property, or any improvements taxed as personal property under s. 77.84 (1)
, and arrives at a different total than the assessment of it for the previous year, the assessor shall notify the person assessed if the address of the person is known to the assessor, otherwise the occupant of the property. However, the assessor is not required to provide notice under this section if land is classified as agricultural land, as defined in s. 70.32 (2) (c) 1g.
, for the current year and previous year and the difference between the assessments is $500 or less. If the assessor determines that land assessed under s. 70.32 (2r)
for the previous year is no longer eligible to be assessed under s. 70.32 (2r)
, and the current classification under s. 70.32 (2) (a)
is not undeveloped, agricultural forest, productive forest land, or other, the assessor shall notify the person assessed if the assessor knows the person's address, or otherwise the occupant of the property, that the person assessed may be subject to a conversion charge under s. 74.485
. Any notice issued under this section shall be in writing and shall be sent by ordinary mail at least 15 days before the meeting of the board of review or before the meeting of the board of assessors in 1st class cities and in 2nd class cities that have a board of assessors under s. 70.075
, except that, in any year in which the taxation district conducts a revaluation under s. 70.05
, the notice shall be sent at least 30 days before the meeting of the board of review or board of assessors. The notice shall contain the amount of the changed assessment and the time, date, and place of the meeting of the local board of review or of the board of assessors. The notice shall also include the following: “Under Wisconsin law, generally, the assessor may not change the assessment of property based solely on the recent arm's length sale of the property without adjusting the assessed value of comparable properties in the same market area. For information on the assessment of properties that have recently sold, visit the Internet site of the Department of Revenue at ... (Internet site address).” However, if the assessment roll is not complete, the notice shall be sent by ordinary mail at least 15 days prior to the date to which the board of review or board of assessors has adjourned, except that, in any year in which the taxation district conducts a revaluation under s. 70.05
, the notice shall be sent at least 30 days prior to the date to which the board of review or board of assessors has adjourned. The assessor shall attach to the assessment roll a statement that the notices required by this section have been mailed and failure to receive the notice shall not affect the validity of the changed assessment, the resulting changed tax, the procedures of the board of review or of the board of assessors or the enforcement of delinquent taxes by statutory means. After the person assessed or the occupant of the property receives notice under this section, if the assessor changes the assessment as a result of the examination of the rolls as provided in s. 70.45
and the person assessed waives, in writing and on a form prescribed or approved by the department of revenue, the person's right to the notice of the changed assessment under this section, no additional notice is required under this section. The secretary of revenue shall prescribe the form of the notice required under this section. The form shall include information notifying the taxpayer of the procedures to be used to object to the assessment. The form shall also indicate whether the person assessed may be subject to a conversion charge under s. 74.485
Under s. 74.37 (4), a taxpayer must challenge an assessment in front of the board of review before filing an excessive assessment claim, unless the taxing authority failed to provide a notice of assessment under circumstances where notice was required. Under s. 70.365, a notice of assessment is required only when the property's assessed value has changed. After reading these statutes, it should have been clear to the taxpayer that: 1) because it did not receive a notice of assessment, its property's assessed value for 2011 would be unchanged from 2010; and 2) if the taxpayer wanted to challenge the 2011 assessment, it needed to object before the board of review. These requirements did not violate the taxpayer's rights to due process. Northbrook Wisconsin, LLC v. City of Niagara, 2014 WI App 22
, 352 Wis. 2d 657
, 843 N.W.2d 851
Net proceeds occupation tax on persons extracting metalliferous minerals in this state. 70.37(1)(1)
The legislature finds that:
The existence has been announced of several economically significant ore bodies containing copper, zinc, lead, taconite and other metalliferous minerals in this state, including one of the largest zinc deposits in North America.
Metalliferous minerals are valuable, irreplaceable natural resources which, once removed, are forever lost as an economic asset to the state.
The activity of mining metalliferous minerals creates jobs, economic activity, tax revenues and other valuable benefits to the economy and residents of this state.
The activity of mining metalliferous minerals creates additional costs to the state and municipalities for highways, sewers, schools and other improvements which are necessary to accommodate the development of a metalliferous mining industry.
The activity of mining metalliferous minerals has a permanent and often damaging effect on the environment of the state.
The activity of mining metalliferous minerals significantly alters the quality of life in communities directly affected by mining.
As the size of a mining operation increases, the cost to the state and municipalities to support the operation increases, as does the damage to the environment. Furthermore, as the size of a mining operation increases, the person mining metalliferous minerals benefits from economies of scale in the mining operation.
A graduated net proceeds occupational tax, by taxing profitability at rates which vary with the level of profitability, encourages important state goals, such as:
Gradual, continuous and complete extraction of metalliferous minerals.
Taxation based on the privileges enjoyed by persons mining metalliferous metallic minerals.
Municipalities incur long-term economic costs as a result of metalliferous mineral mining after the mining operation shuts down. An impact fund, in which is deposited a portion of the tax revenues, should assure that moneys will be available to such municipalities for long- and short-term costs associated with social, educational, environmental and economic impacts of metalliferous mineral mining.
It is the declared intent of the legislature to establish a net proceeds occupation tax on persons engaged in the activity of mining metalliferous minerals in this state. The tax is established in order that the state may derive a benefit from the extraction of irreplaceable metalliferous minerals and in order to compensate the state and municipalities for costs, past, present and future, incurred or to be incurred as a result of the loss of valuable irreplaceable metallic mineral resources.
History: 1977 c. 31
Net proceeds occupation tax on mining of metallic minerals; computation. 70.375(1)(ab)
“Controlled entity" means a person at least 50 percent of the voting stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by another person who is engaged in mining metalliferous minerals.
“Controlling entity" is a person who owns directly or indirectly at least 50 percent of the voting stock of another person who is engaged in mining metalliferous minerals.
“Extraction of ores or minerals from the ground" includes the extraction, by owners or operators of mines, of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining unless the extraction is made by a purchaser of waste or residue or by a purchaser of the rights to extract ores or minerals from the waste or residue.
“Gross income from mining" means that amount of income which is attributable to the processes of extraction of ores or minerals from the ground and the application of mining processes, including mining transportation and as further defined in 26 CFR section 1.613-4. In this paragraph “income" means the actual amount for which ore or mineral, less trade and cash discounts actually allowed, is sold if the taxpayer sells the ore or mineral after the application of mining processes. If ore or minerals are sold after the application of nonmining processes, gross income from mining shall be computed as provided in 26 CFR section 1.613-4.
“Gross proceeds" means gross income from mining except as provided under sub. (3)
“Internal Revenue Code" means the federal Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and applicable federal regulations adopted by the federal department of the treasury.
“Mine" means an excavation in or at the earth's surface made to extract metalliferous minerals for which a permit has been issued under s. 293.49
“Mine site" means the underground and surface area disturbed by a mine, including the locations from which the minerals or refuse or both have been removed, the surface area covered by refuse, and any surface areas in which structures, haulageways, pipelines, equipment, materials and any other things used directly in connection with the mine are situated.
“Mining" has the meaning under section 613
(c) of the internal revenue code and includes the extraction of ores or minerals from the ground, the transportation of ores or minerals from the point of extraction to the plants or mills at which the treatment processes are applied and the following treatment processes applied to an ore or mineral for which the owner or operator is entitled to a deduction for depletion under section 611
of the internal revenue code:
In the case of iron ore, bauxite and other ores or minerals that are customarily sold in the form of a crude mineral product; sorting, concentrating, sintering and substantially equivalent processes that bring the ore or mineral to shipping grade and form, and loading for shipment.
In the case of lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, uranium and other ores or minerals that are not customarily sold in the form of the crude mineral product; crushing, grinding and beneficiation by concentration by means of gravity, flotation, amalgamation, electrostatic or magnetic processes, cyanidation, leaching, crystallization or precipitation; not including electrolytic deposition, roasting, thermal or electric smelting or refining; or by substantially equivalent processes or by a combination of processes used in the separation or extraction of the products from other material taken out of the mine or out of another natural deposit.
Any treatment processes provided for by rules promulgated by the department.
For purposes of this section, “mining" does not include the extraction or beneficiation of sand or gravel or the following treatment processes unless they are provided for under subd. 1. d.
: electrolytic deposition, roasting, calcining, thermal or electric smelting, refining, polishing, fine pulverization, blending with other materials, treatment effecting a chemical change, thermal action, molding and shaping.
“Mining-related purposes" means activities which are directly in response to the application for a mining permit under s. 293.37
; directly in response to construction, operation, curtailment of operation or cessation of operation of a metalliferous mine site; or directly in response to conditions at a metalliferous mine site which is not in operation. “Mining-related purposes" also includes activities which anticipate the economic and social consequences of the cessation of mining. “Mining-related purposes" also includes the purposes under s. 70.395 (2) (g)
“Municipality" means any county, city, village, town or school district.
“Person" means a sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, association or corporation and includes a lessee engaged in mining metalliferous minerals.
“Secretary" means the secretary of revenue.
In respect to mines not in operation on November 28, 1981, there is imposed upon persons engaged in mining metalliferous minerals in this state a net proceeds occupation tax effective on the date on which extraction begins to compensate the state and municipalities for the loss of valuable, irreplaceable metalliferous minerals. The amount of the tax shall be determined by applying the rates established under sub. (5)
to the net proceeds of each mine. The net proceeds of each mine for each year are the difference between the gross proceeds and the deductions allowed under sub. (4)
for the year.
The secretary may promulgate any rules necessary to implement the tax under ss. 70.37
and 70.395 (1e)
. In respect to mines not in operation on November 28, 1981, ss. 71.10 (1)
, 71.30 (1)
, 71.74 (2)
, 71.80 (6)
, 71.83 (1) (a) 1.
and (b) 2.
and (2) (a) 3.
and (b) 1.
and 71.85 (2)
apply to the administration of this section.
There is imposed upon persons engaged in mining metalliferous minerals in this state in respect to mines in operation on November 28, 1981, a net proceeds occupation tax effective on the date on which extraction begins to January 1, 1991, to compensate the state and municipalities for the loss of valuable, irreplaceable metalliferous minerals. The amount of the tax shall be determined by applying the rates established under sub. (5)
to the average of the net proceeds of the person for the preceding 3-year period. The net proceeds of a person for each year shall be the difference between the gross proceeds, computed under sub. (3)
for the year, and the deductions allowed under sub. (4)
for the year.
Alternate computation of gross proceeds.
If products are sold or transferred to a person operating a smelting, refining or other processing or marketing facility which is located outside of the United States or to a controlled entity or controlling entity of the seller or transferor and if the secretary determines that the gross proceeds under sub. (1) (am)
do not reflect or demonstrate the gross proceeds that would have been received from an unrelated purchaser for the product under similar circumstances, the gross proceeds shall be computed under this subsection. For the purpose of this subsection “control" means direct or indirect ownership of at least 50 percent of the total combined voting stock of the corporation. The gross proceeds shall be computed by multiplying that part of the production of recovered metalliferous minerals which were sold or transferred during the taxable year by the average price of that mineral for the taxable year and then subtracting the cost of postmining processes, including the cost of capital (interest and earnings) imputed to that production. The average price shall be computed from the monthly prices published in the engineering and mining journal as follows:
Taconite pellets, lower lake ports price, net of unloading charges.
Copper, United States producer price, F.O.B. refinery.
Other metalliferous minerals or other forms of metalliferous minerals not including mineral aggregates such as stone, sand and gravel, at a price determined by the secretary, by rule, from a nationally known publication or other nationally known source listing prices of metalliferous minerals.
If the costs are not excluded in determining gross proceeds and are actually incurred or accrued, there shall be allowed to persons subject to the tax under sub. (2)
the following deductions:
The actual and necessary expenses incurred during the taxable year for labor, tools, appliances and supplies used in mining metalliferous minerals, including the labor of the lessee and the lessee's employees and the amount expended by the lessee for tools, appliances and supplies used by the lessee in the mining operation. The personal labor of the lessee shall be computed at the prevailing wage rate.
The actual and necessary expenses for mining including extracting, transporting, milling, concentrating, smelting, refining, reducing, assaying, sampling, inventorying and handling the ore and for further processing and transferring related to the product for which gross proceeds are received, including the cost of capital (interest and earnings) imputed to smelting and refining expenses.
The actual and necessary expenses for administrative, appraising, accounting, legal, medical, engineering, clerical and technical services directly related to mining metalliferous minerals in this state, excluding salaries and expenses for corporate officers and for lobbying, as defined in s. 13.62 (10)
The actual and necessary expenses directly related to the repair and maintenance of any machinery, mills, reduction works, buildings, structures, other necessary improvements, tools, appliances and supplies used in mining metalliferous minerals extracted in this state.
Except as provided in par. (em)
, federal income taxes paid, state income or franchise taxes paid, property taxes, sales taxes and use taxes paid and other taxes paid and deductible by corporations in computing net income under s. 71.26 (2)
which are allocable to the mine, excluding the tax under this section.
In the case of a mine owned by a corporation that owns other business operations or is part of an affiliated group of corporations eligible to file consolidated federal income tax returns, the determination of deductible state income or franchise taxes and federal income taxes shall be made by calculating the taxable income from the mine as though the mine were a separate entity and applying the federal income tax laws and state income or franchise tax laws to this income as though the mine were filing a separate income or franchise tax return. To calculate taxable income, federal taxable income as it applies to the depletion deduction under section 613
of the internal revenue code shall be adjusted to reflect the difference between Wisconsin income or franchise tax law and federal income tax law.
Rents paid on personal property used in mining metalliferous minerals.
The cost of relocating employees within this state.
The cost of premiums for insurance on persons or tangible assets relating to mining metalliferous minerals.
Losses from uninsured casualty losses and the sale of personal property used in mining metalliferous minerals.
Depreciation or amortization on property used in connection with mining. With respect to property first eligible for depreciation or amortization before January 1, 1981, the deduction shall be limited to the deduction under s. 70.375 (4) (k)
, 1979 stats. With respect to property first eligible for depreciation or amortization on or after January 1, 1981, the deduction shall be limited to the amount allowable as a deduction to corporations in computing net income under s. 71.26 (2)
. The following assets may be depreciated or amortized: