This is the preview version of the Wisconsin State Legislature site.
Please see http://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov for the production version.
48.85 History History: 1973 c. 263; 2009 a. 94.
48.871 48.871 Filing of recommendation by guardian. In the case of a recommendation by a guardian, the guardian shall file with its recommendation satisfactory evidence of its authority to file such recommendation relative to the adoption of the minor. In the case where the parents' rights have been judicially terminated, this evidence shall be a certified copy of the order terminating their rights and appointing the guardian. In other cases of a guardian appointed by a court, this evidence shall be a certified copy of the order appointing it guardian. In the case of a guardian having the authority to consent or file its recommendation under an instrument other than a court order, valid under the laws of another state, that instrument shall serve as evidence of the authority to consent or file its recommendation.
48.88 48.88 Notice of hearing; investigation.
48.88(1)(1)In this section, unless otherwise qualified, “agency" means any public or private entity except an individual.
48.88(1m) (1m)Upon the filing of a petition for adoption, the court shall schedule a hearing within 90 days of the filing. Notice of the hearing shall be mailed, not later than 3 days from the date of the order for hearing and investigation, to the guardian of the child, if any, to the agency making the investigation under sub. (2), to the department when its recommendation is required by s. 48.89 and to the child if the child is 12 years of age or over.
48.88(2) (2)
48.88(2)(a)(a) Except as provided under pars. (ag), (c), and (d), when a petition to adopt a child is filed, the court shall order an investigation to determine whether the child is a proper subject for adoption and whether the petitioner's home is suitable for the child. The court shall order one of the following to conduct or supplement the investigation:
48.88(2)(a)1. 1. If an agency has guardianship of the child, the guardianship agency, unless the agency has already filed its recommendation under s. 48.85 and has filed with the recommendation a report of an investigation as required under this paragraph.
48.88(2)(a)2. 2. If no agency has guardianship of the child and a relative other than a stepparent has filed the petition for adoption, the department, a county department under s. 48.57 (1) (e) or (hm) or a licensed child welfare agency.
48.88(2)(a)4. 4. If the child is a citizen of a foreign jurisdiction and is under the guardianship of an individual, the agency which conducted the home study required under federal law prior to the child's entry into the United States.
48.88(2)(ag) (ag) If the child is an Indian child, the court may request the tribal child welfare department of the Indian child's tribe to conduct the investigation. If the tribal child welfare department agrees to conduct the investigation, that investigation may be accepted in lieu of the investigation under par. (a).
48.88(2)(aj)1.1. In determining whether the petitioner's home is suitable for the child, the agency or tribal child welfare department making the investigation shall consider whether the petitioner is fit and qualified to care for the child, exercises sound judgment, does not abuse alcohol or drugs, and displays the capacity to successfully nurture the child.
48.88(2)(aj)2. 2. The investigation shall be conducted using an assessment system that is approved by the department. The assessment system shall provide a reliable, comprehensive, and standardized qualitative evaluation of a petitioner's personal characteristics, civil and criminal history, age, health, financial stability, and ability to responsibly meet all requirements of the department.
48.88(2)(aj)3. 3. If the agency or tribal child welfare department making the investigation has special concern as to the welfare of the child or the suitability of the placement, the investigation may include a clinical assessment of the petitioner's mental health or alcohol or other drug use by an employee of the agency or tribal child welfare department who is not employed in the unit of the agency or tribal child welfare department that is making the investigation or by a person who is not employed by that agency or tribal child welfare department. A person who provides such an assessment shall be a licensed psychologist, licensed psychiatrist, certified advanced practice social worker, certified independent social worker, licensed clinical social worker, or licensed professional counselor.
48.88(2)(am)1.1. If the petitioner was required to obtain an initial license to operate a foster home before placement of the child for adoption or relicensure after a break in licensure, the agency making the investigation shall obtain a criminal history search from the records maintained by the department of justice and request under 42 USC 16962 (b) a fingerprint-based check of the national crime information databases, as defined in 28 USC 534 (f) (3) (A), with respect to the petitioner. The agency may release any information obtained under this subdivision only as permitted under 42 USC 16962 (e). In the case of a child on whose behalf adoption assistance payments will be provided under s. 48.975, if the petitioner has been convicted of any of the offenses specified in s. 48.685 (5) (bm) 1. to 4., the agency may not report that the petitioner's home is suitable for the child.
48.88(2)(am)2. 2. If the petitioner was required to obtain a license to operate a foster home before placement of the child for adoption, the agency making the investigation shall obtain information maintained by the department regarding any substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect against the petitioner and any other adult residing in the petitioner's home. If the petitioner or other adult residing in the petitioner's home is not, or at any time within the 5 years preceding the date of the search has not been, a resident of this state, the agency shall check any child abuse or neglect registry maintained by any state or other U.S. jurisdiction in which the petitioner or other adult is a resident or was a resident within those 5 years for information that is equivalent to the information maintained by the department regarding substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. The agency may not use any information obtained under this subdivision for any purpose other than a background search under this subdivision.
48.88(2)(b) (b) The agency or tribal child welfare department making the investigation shall file its report with the court at least 10 days before the hearing unless the time is reduced for good cause shown by the petitioner. In reporting on an investigation of the proposed adoptive home of an Indian child, the agency shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (a) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c), unless the agency finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order. The report shall be part of the record of the proceedings.
48.88(2)(c) (c) If a stepparent has filed a petition for adoption and no agency has guardianship of the child, the court shall order the department, in a county having a population of 750,000 or more, or a county department or, with the consent of the department in a county having a population of less than 750,000 or a licensed child welfare agency, order the department or the child welfare agency to conduct a screening, consisting of no more than one interview with the petitioner and a check of the petitioner's background through public records, including records maintained by the department or any county department under s. 48.981. The department, county department or child welfare agency that conducts the screening shall file a report of the screening with the court within 30 days. After reviewing the report, the court may proceed to act on the petition, may order the department in a county having a population of 750,000 or more or the county department to conduct an investigation as described under par. (a) (intro.) or may order the department in a county having a population of less than 750,000 or a licensed child welfare agency to make the investigation if the department or child welfare agency consents.
48.88(2)(d) (d) An investigation is not required under this subsection if all of the following apply:
48.88(2)(d)1. 1. The petitioner is licensed to operate a foster home and the license is in effect at the time the adoption petition is filed.
48.88(2)(d)2. 2. The petitioner has never had a license to operate a foster home revoked or suspended.
48.88(2)(d)3. 3. An investigation as to the suitability of the petitioner's home was conducted as provided in par. (aj) for the purpose of licensing the petitioner's home for foster care and the investigation has been supplemented to evaluate whether the petitioner's home is suitable for the child who is the subject of the adoption.
48.88(3) (3)If the report of the investigation is unfavorable or if it discloses a situation which, in the opinion of the court, raises a serious question as to the suitability of the proposed adoption, the court may appoint a guardian ad litem for the minor whose adoption is proposed. The guardian ad litem may have witnesses subpoenaed and present proof at the hearing.
48.89 48.89 Recommendation of the department.
48.89(1)(1)The recommendation of the department is required for the adoption of a child if the child is not under the guardianship of a county department under s. 48.57 (1) (e) or (hm) or a child welfare agency under s. 48.61 (5). In making a recommendation under this subsection with respect to an Indian child, the department shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (a) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c), unless the department finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order.
48.89(2) (2)The department shall make its recommendation to the court at least 10 days before the hearing unless the time is extended by the court. The recommendation shall be part of the record of the proceedings.
48.89(3) (3)The recommendation of the department shall not be required if the recommendation of the department, a licensed child welfare agency or a county department under s. 48.57 (1) (e) or (hm) is required by s. 48.841, if a report of an investigation by the department, a county department under s. 48.57 (1) (e) or (hm) or a licensed child welfare agency is required by s. 48.88 (2) (a) 2. or if one of the petitioners is a relative of the child.
48.90 48.90 Filing of adoption petition; preadoption residence.
48.90(1)(1)A petition for adoption may be filed at any time if:
48.90(1)(a) (a) One of the petitioners is a relative of the child by blood or by adoption, excluding parents whose parental rights have been terminated and persons whose relationship to the child is derived through such parents.
48.90(1)(b) (b) The petitioner is the child's stepparent.
48.90(1)(c) (c) The petition is accompanied by a written approval of the guardian.
48.90(1)(d) (d) The petitioner is the proposed adoptive parent with whom the child has been placed under s. 48.839.
48.90(2) (2)Except as provided under sub. (1), no petition for adoption may be filed unless the child has been in the home of the petitioners for 6 months or more.
48.90(3) (3)No petition for adoption may be filed unless the petitioners have complied with all applicable provisions of this chapter relating to adoptive placements.
48.90 Annotation Once administrative proceedings to remove a child from an in-home placement have commenced under s. 48.64 and the person with whom the child had been placed is seeking a review of the removal order, a children's court has no jurisdiction over an adoption petition filed by the person after issuance of the removal order. Adoption of Shawn, 65 Wis. 2d 190, 222 N.W.2d 139 (1974).
48.90 Annotation Standing to object to adoption proceedings turns on the right to petition for adoption; grandparents excluded from petitioning under sub. (1) (a) had no standing to object to the adoption of their grandchildren. Adoption of J.C.G., 177 Wis. 2d 424, 501 N.W.2d 908 (Ct. App. 1993).
48.91 48.91 Hearing; order.
48.91(1)(1)The hearing may be in chambers unless an interested person objects. The petitioner and the minor to be adopted, if 14 or older, shall attend unless the court orders otherwise.
48.91(2) (2)In an adoption proceeding for a nonmarital child who is not adopted or whose parents do not subsequently intermarry under s. 767.803, the court shall establish whether the child's paternity has been conclusively determined from genetic test results under s. 767.804, acknowledged under s. 767.805 or a substantially similar law of another state, or adjudicated in this state or in another jurisdiction. If the child's paternity has not been conclusively determined from genetic test results, acknowledged, or adjudicated, the court shall attempt to ascertain the paternity of the child and shall determine the rights of any person who may be the father of the child as provided under s. 48.423. The court may not proceed with the hearing on the petition for adoption unless the parental rights of the nonpetitioning parent, whether known or unknown, have been terminated.
48.91(3) (3)If after the hearing and a study of the report required by s. 48.88 and the recommendation required by s. 48.841 or 48.89, the court is satisfied that the necessary consents or recommendations have been filed and that the adoption is in the best interests of the child, the court shall make an order granting the adoption. In determining whether the adoption is in the best interests of an Indian child, the court shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (a) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c), unless the court finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order. The order may change the name of the minor to that requested by petitioners.
48.91 Annotation Meaning of “best interests of the child" is discussed. Adoption of Tachick, 60 Wis. 2d 540, 210 N.W.2d 865 (1973).
48.913 48.913 Payments by adoptive or proposed adoptive parents to a birth parent or child or on behalf of a birth parent or child.
48.913(1)(1)Payments allowed. The proposed adoptive parents of a child, or a person acting on behalf of the proposed adoptive parents, may pay the actual cost of any of the following:
48.913(1)(a) (a) Preadoptive counseling for a birth parent of the child or an alleged or presumed father of the child.
48.913(1)(b) (b) Post-adoptive counseling for a birth parent of the child or an alleged or presumed father of the child.
48.913(1)(c) (c) Maternity clothes for the child's birth mother, in an amount not to exceed $300.
48.913(1)(d) (d) Local transportation expenses of a birth parent of the child that are related to the pregnancy or adoption.
48.913(1)(e) (e) Services provided by a licensed child welfare agency in connection with the adoption.
48.913(1)(f) (f) Medical and hospital care received by the child's birth mother in connection with the pregnancy or birth of the child. Medical and hospital care does not include lost wages or living expenses.
48.913(1)(g) (g) Medical and hospital care received by the child.
48.913(1)(h) (h) Legal and other services received by a birth parent of the child, an alleged or presumed father of the child or the child in connection with the adoption.
48.913(1)(i) (i) Living expenses of the child's birth mother, in an amount not to exceed $5,000, if payment of the expenses by the proposed adoptive parents or a person acting on their behalf is necessary to protect the health and welfare of the birth mother or the fetus.
48.913(1)(j) (j) Any investigation ordered under s. 48.837 (4) (c), according to a fee schedule established by the department based on ability to pay.
48.913(1)(k) (k) If the adoption is completed, the cost of any care provided for the child under s. 48.837 (4) (d) or (dm).
48.913(1)(L) (L) Birthing classes.
48.913(1)(m) (m) A gift to the child's birth mother from the proposed adoptive parents, of no greater than $100 in value.
48.913(2) (2)Payment of expenses when birth parent is residing in another state. Notwithstanding sub. (1), the proposed adoptive parents of a child or a person acting on behalf of the proposed adoptive parents of a child may pay for an expense of a birth parent of the child or an alleged or presumed father of the child if the birth parent or the alleged or presumed father was residing in another state when the payment was made and when the expense was incurred and if all of the following apply:
48.913(2)(a) (a) The child was placed for adoption in this state in accordance with s. 48.988 or 48.99.
48.913(2)(b) (b) The state in which the birth parent or the alleged or presumed father was residing when the payment was made permits the payment of that expense by the proposed adoptive parents of the child.
48.913(2)(c) (c) A listing of all payments made under this subsection, a copy of the statutory provisions of the state in which the birth parent or the alleged or presumed father was residing when the payments were made that permit those payments to be made by the proposed adoptive parents of the child and a copy of all orders entered in the state in which the birth parent or the alleged or presumed father was residing when the payments were made that relate to the payment of expenses of the birth parent or the alleged or presumed father by the proposed adoptive parents of the child is submitted to the court as follows:
48.913(2)(c)1. 1. With the report under sub. (6), if the parental rights of either birth parent of the child are terminated in this state.
48.913(2)(c)2. 2. With a petition under s. 48.837 (2), if the parental rights of both birth parents of the child are terminated in another state and the child is placed for adoption under s. 48.837 (2).
48.913(2)(c)3. 3. With a petition under s. 48.90, if the parental rights of both parents of the child are terminated in another state and the child is placed for adoption under s. 48.833.
48.913(3) (3)Method of payment. Any payment under sub. (1) or (2) shall be made directly to the provider of a good or service except that a payment under sub. (1) or (2) may be made to a birth parent of the child or to an alleged or presumed father of the child as reimbursement of an amount previously paid by the birth parent or by the alleged or presumed father if documentation is provided showing that the birth parent or alleged or presumed father has made the previous payment.
48.913(4) (4)Other payments prohibited. The proposed adoptive parents of a child or a person acting on behalf of the proposed adoptive parents may not make any payments to or on behalf of a birth parent of the child, an alleged or presumed father of the child or the child except as provided in subs. (1) and (2).
48.913(5) (5)Payments after finalization of adoption. The adoptive parents of a child or a person acting on behalf of the proposed adoptive parents may make a payment that is authorized under subs. (1) and (2) after finalization of the adoption, if the payment is included in the report under sub. (6) or an amendment to that report filed with the court.
48.913(6) (6)Report to the court; when required. A report containing the information specified in sub. (7) shall be provided to the court at the time of the hearing on the petition for adoptive placement under s. 48.837 (2) or upon the order of the court under s. 48.422 (7) (bm).
48.913(7) (7)Report to the court; contents required. The report required under sub. (6) shall include a list of all transfers of anything of value made or agreed to be made by the proposed adoptive parents or by a person acting on their behalf to a birth parent of the child, an alleged or presumed father of the child or the child, on behalf of a birth parent of the child, an alleged or presumed father of the child or the child, or to any other person in connection with the pregnancy, the birth of the child, the placement of the child with the proposed adoptive parents or the adoption of the child by the proposed adoptive parents. The report shall be itemized and shall show the goods or services for which payment was made or agreed to be made. The report shall include the dates of each payment, the names and addresses of each attorney, doctor, hospital, agency or other person or organization receiving any payment from the proposed adoptive parents or a person acting on behalf of the proposed adoptive parents in connection with the pregnancy, the birth of the child, the placement of the child with the proposed adoptive parents or the adoption of the child by the proposed adoptive parents.
48.913(8) (8)Adoption of foreign children and adoption by relatives of the child. This section does not apply to an adoptive or proposed adoptive parent of a child with whom the child has been placed under s. 48.839 or to an adoptive or proposed adoptive parent of a child who is a relative of the child.
48.913 History History: 1997 a. 104; 2005 a. 293; 2007 a. 186; 2009 a. 339.
48.913 Note NOTE: 1997 Wis. Act 104, which affected this section, contains explanatory notes.
48.915 48.915 Adoption appeals given preference. An appeal from a judgment granting or denying an adoption shall be given preference.
48.915 History History: 1987 a. 383; 1993 a. 395 s. 30; Stats. 1993 s. 48.915.
48.92 48.92 Effect of adoption.
48.92(1)(1)After the order of adoption is entered the relation of parent and child and all the rights, duties and other legal consequences of the natural relation of child and parent thereafter exists between the adopted person and the adoptive parents.
48.92(2) (2)After the order of adoption is entered the relationship of parent and child between the adopted person and the adopted person's birth parents and the relationship between the adopted person and all persons whose relationship to the adopted person is derived through those birth parents shall be completely altered and all the rights, duties, and other legal consequences of those relationships shall cease to exist, unless the birth parent is the spouse of the adoptive parent, in which case those relationships shall be completely altered and those rights, duties, and other legal consequences shall cease to exist only with respect to the birth parent who is not the spouse of the adoptive parent and all persons whose relationship to the adopted person is derived through that birth parent. Notwithstanding the extinction of all parental rights under this subsection, a court may order reasonable visitation under s. 48.925.
48.92(3) (3)Rights of inheritance by, from and through an adopted child are governed by ss. 854.20 and 854.21.
48.92(4) (4)Nothing in this section shall be construed to abrogate the right of the department to make payments to adoptive families under s. 48.48 (12).
48.92 Annotation A valid adoption of the petitioner by his aunt would preclude his right to inherit as the son of his natural mother, although he would be entitled to inherit as a nephew. Estate of Komarr, 68 Wis. 2d 473, 228 N.W.2d 681 (1975).
48.92 Annotation Biological grandparents had no right to visitation following termination of their son's parental rights and adoption by the child's stepfather. In re Marriage of Soergel, 154 Wis. 2d 564, 453 N.W.2d 624 (1990).
48.92 Annotation The adoption of a child of a deceased parent does not terminate the decedent's parents' grandparental visitation rights under s. 880.155 [now s. 48.9795 (12)]. H.F. v. T.F., 168 Wis. 2d 62, 483 N.W.2d 803 (1992).
Loading...
Loading...
2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 186 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on November 3, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after November 3, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 11-3-20)