To stop this time limit from beginning to run, the condemnee must avoid giving physical possession of the property to the condemnor. The statute provides no exception for the circumstance in which the condemnor and condemnee engage in good faith negotiations as to the amount of relocation expenses to be paid. The legislature specifically used the term “physical" to avoid uncertainty in identifying the exact time when the legal right to possession arises. C. Coakley Relocation Systems v. City of Milwaukee, 2007 WI App 209
, 305 Wis. 2d 487
, 740 N.W.2d 636
Whenever any lands or interest therein are urgently needed by any state board, or commission, or other agency of the state, and a contract for the purchase or use of the property cannot be made for a reasonable price, or for any other reason, including the unavailability of the owner or owners, the board, commission or agency may, with the approval of the governor, issue an award of damages and upon tender of the award to the owner or owners, or deposit in a court of record in the county where the lands are situated in cases where an owner is not available or tender is refused, take immediate possession of said property. Deposit in a court of record may be made by registered mail addressed to the clerk of the court. The governor shall determine whether or not such an award shall issue. Appeal from said award of damages will lie as in other similar cases and all provisions of this subchapter shall govern, except as to the provision herein concerning the immediate issuance of the award tender and immediate possession.
History: 1981 c. 390
; 1983 a. 236
See also s. Adm 92.001
, Wis. adm. code.
Special procedure for immediate condemnation. 32.22(1)(1)
In this section, unless the context requires otherwise:
“Blighted property" means any property which, by reason of abandonment, dilapidation, deterioration, age or obsolescence, inadequate provisions for ventilation, light, air or sanitation, high density of population and overcrowding, faulty lot layout in relation to size, adequacy, accessibility or usefulness, unsanitary or unsafe conditions, deterioration of site or other improvements, or the existence of conditions which endanger life or property by fire or other causes, or any combination of such factors, is detrimental to the public health, safety or welfare.
“Municipality" means a city, a village, a town, a housing authority created under ss. 66.1201
, a redevelopment authority created under s. 66.1333
or a community development authority created under s. 66.1335
“Owner" means any person holding record title in the property.
“Residential" means used principally for dwelling purposes.
Any municipality may use the procedures in this section for the condemnation of blighted residential property, in lieu of the procedures in s. 32.06
. Any 1st class city may use the procedures in this section for the condemnation of blighted residential property, in lieu of the procedures in subch. II
. The procedures in this section may only be used to acquire all of the property in a single parcel. Except as provided in sub. (12)
, the procedures in this section may not be used by a municipality to acquire blighted residential property for any purpose which requires the razing of the residential building.
(3) Determination of necessity of taking.
The necessity of taking shall be determined under s. 32.07
(4) Appraisal; information on blight; warrant. 32.22(4)(a)1.1.
The municipality shall prepare one or more appraisals of any blighted residential property proposed to be acquired under this section. In preparing any appraisal under this paragraph, the appraiser shall confer with the owner or the owner's representative, if either can be located with reasonable diligence. The condemnor shall provide the owner with a full narrative appraisal upon which the petition under sub. (5)
is based and a copy of any other appraisal made under this paragraph and at the same time shall inform the owner of his or her right to obtain an appraisal under subd. 2.
The owner may obtain an appraisal by a qualified appraiser of all property proposed to be acquired. The owner may submit the reasonable costs of the appraisal to the condemnor for payment, along with a copy of the owner's full narrative appraisal and evidence of the owner's payment for the appraisal within 60 days after the petition is filed under sub. (5)
. After receipt of the statement of appraisal costs, proof of payment and a copy of the appraisal, the municipality shall promptly reimburse the owner for the reasonable costs of the appraisal. The condemnor shall not be required to reimburse more than one owner under this subdivision for an appraisal relating to the condemnation under this section of any single parcel of real estate. If record title exists in more than one person, the person obtaining reimbursement under this subdivision shall provide a copy of the owner's appraisal to each other person who is an owner, as defined in sub. (1) (c)
Before submitting the petition under sub. (5)
, the municipality shall ascertain that the property is blighted and shall note any other evidence of blight, such as unlocked doors, unlocked or broken windows and screens, lack of gas, electric or water service, absence of personal belongings in the building and any conditions which render the building untenantable.
Prior to entry into any building proposed to be acquired under this section, the condemnor shall obtain a special condemnation warrant under this paragraph. To obtain a special condemnation warrant, the condemnor shall petition the circuit court for the county in which the property proposed to be acquired is located and shall mail a copy of the petition for a warrant under this paragraph by registered or certified mail to the owner's last-known address if any. The court shall issue the warrant on the condemnor's affidavit that the condemnor intends to condemn the property under this section; that the condemnor has mailed a copy of the petition for the warrant as required in this paragraph; and that an external inspection of the property indicates that it is blighted.
(5) Petition for condemnation proceedings. 32.22(5)(a)(a)
A municipality may present a verified petition to the circuit court for the county in which the property to be taken is located, for proceedings to take immediate possession of blighted residential property and for proceedings to determine the necessity of taking, where such determination is required. The compensation offered for the property shall accompany the petition.
Describe the property and interests sought to be acquired.
State the authority of the municipality to condemn the property.
Describe the facts which indicate that property is blighted.
Itemize the compensation offered for the property according to the items of damages under s. 32.09
Describe the condemnor's plan to preserve the property pending rehabilitation.
Describe the condemnor's plan to rehabilitate the property and return it to the housing market.
Immediately upon receipt of the petition, the circuit court shall examine the evidence presented by the municipality showing that the property is blighted. If the circuit court finds that the property is blighted, the court shall immediately direct the municipality to serve a copy of the petition and a notice on the owner under s. 801.12 (1)
, and to post a copy of the petition and notice on the main entrance to the residential building. The notice shall state that:
The owner may accept the compensation offered by filing a petition with the clerk of the court.
The owner may commence a court action to contest the right of condemnation as provided in sub. (8)
within 40 days from completion of service of process.
The owner may appeal for greater compensation without prejudice to the right to use the compensation given by the award under sub. (10)
within 2 years from the date of taking of the property.
Acceptance of the award is an absolute bar to an action to contest the right of condemnation under sub. (8)
If any owner is a minor or an individual adjudicated incompetent, a special guardian shall be appointed under s. 32.05 (4)
(7) Possession and protection of the property.
Within one working day after the municipality files proof of service of the petition and notice under s. 801.12 (1)
, the court shall grant the municipality immediate possession of the property. After obtaining the right to possession of the property, the municipality may take any action necessary to protect the property. The municipality shall post a notice on the main entrance to the building directing any occupant of the property to contact the municipality for information on relocation assistance.
(8) Action to contest right of condemnation. 32.22(8)(a)(a)
If an owner desires to contest the right of the condemnor to condemn the property described in the petition, for any reason other than that the amount of compensation offered is inadequate, the owner may within 40 days from the date of service and posting of the notice under sub. (6)
commence an action in the circuit court of the county in which the property is located, naming the condemnor as defendant. If the action is based on the allegation that the condemned property is not blighted, the owner shall demonstrate by a preponderance of the credible evidence that the property is not blighted.
An action under this subsection shall be the only manner in which any issue other than the amount of just compensation, or other than proceedings to perfect title under ss. 32.11
, may be raised pertaining to the condemnation of the property described in the petition. The trial of the issues raised by the pleadings in an action under this subsection shall be given precedence over all other actions in the circuit court then not actually on trial. If the action under this subsection is not commenced within the time limited, or if compensation offered for the condemned property is accepted, the owner or other person having any interest in the property shall be barred from raising any objection to the condemnor's right to condemn the property under this section in any manner.
Nothing in this subsection limits in any respect the right to determine the necessity of taking under s. 32.07
. Nothing in this subsection limits the right of the municipality to exercise control over the property under sub. (7)
If the final judgment of the court is that the municipality is not authorized to condemn the property, the court shall award the owner a sum equal to actual damages, if any, caused by the municipality in exercising control over the property, in addition to the amounts provided in s. 32.28
(9) Payment of compensation; transfer of title. 32.22(9)(a)(a)
If the owner accepts the compensation offered, or if the owner does not accept the compensation offered but no timely action is commenced under sub. (8)
, or if in an action under sub. (8)
the circuit court holds that the municipality may condemn the property, the court shall order the title transferred to the municipality and the compensation paid to the owner.
The clerk of court shall give notice of the order under par. (a)
by certified mail, or by a class 3 notice under ch. 985
, if any owner cannot be found, or any owner's address is unknown. The notice shall indicate that the owner may receive his or her proper share of the award by petition to and order of the court. The petition may be filed with the clerk of the court without fee.
(10) Action to contest amount of compensation.
Within 2 years after the date of taking under this section, an owner may appeal from the award using the procedures in s. 32.05 (9)
and chs. 808
without prejudice to the owner's right to use the compensation received under sub. (9)
pending final determination under this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, the “date of taking" and the “date of evaluation" shall be the date of filing the petition in circuit court under sub. (5)
. For the purposes of this subsection, the “basic award" shall be the amount paid into the circuit court by the municipality under sub. (5)
. If the owner is successful on the appeal and the circuit court awards an amount higher than the basic award, the court shall award the owner the amounts provided in s. 32.28
If within 2 years after the petition is filed by the municipality, any person claims to have been a lawful occupant of the property condemned on the date the petition was filed, that individual may submit a request for relocation assistance under s. 32.25
to the municipality. The municipality shall, within 30 days after receipt of the request, either grant this request or apply to the circuit court for the county in which the property is located for a resolution of the claim.
If an application is made to the circuit court under par. (a)
, the court shall conduct a hearing and determine whether the claimant had a lawful right to occupy the property and whether the claimant actually occupied the property on the date the petition was filed. If the court finds in favor of the claimant, the court shall direct the municipality to provide the relocation assistance and other aid available under s. 32.25
to a displaced person at the time of condemnation, unless the municipality abandons the proceedings and the claimant is able to resume occupancy of the property.
No determination by a court under par. (b)
in favor of a claimant affects the right of the municipality to condemn the property under this section in any case in which the owner accepts the compensation offered by the municipality or in which the claim under par. (a)
is made after the latest date on which the owner could have filed an action under sub. (8)
(12) Disposition of condemned property. 32.22(12)(a)(a)
Nothing in this section requires the municipality to rehabilitate a residential building, if it appears at any time that total cost of rehabilitation, including structural repairs and alterations, exceeds 80 percent of the estimated fair market value of the building when rehabilitation is complete. If the municipality determines under this paragraph not to rehabilitate a residential building condemned under this section, the municipality shall sell the building to any corporation organized under ch. 181
that is a nonprofit corporation, as defined in s. 181.0103 (17)
, or any cooperative organized under ch. 185
Offers to purchase the building within 60 days after the municipality determines not to rehabilitate the building for an amount which is not less than the amount paid by the municipality to acquire the building from the previous owner under this section;
Agrees to submit to the municipality its plans to rehabilitate the building within 3 months after the date on which the nonprofit corporation or cooperative acquires title to the building, to commence significant rehabilitation activities within 6 months after that date and to complete the rehabilitation program and return the building to residential use within 18 months after that date; and
Agrees to execute a quitclaim deed returning the property to the municipality without compensation or reimbursement if the nonprofit corporation or cooperative fails to satisfy any of the requirements of subd. 2.
If the municipality undertakes and completes the rehabilitation of any residential building acquired under this section, the municipality shall:
Sell, lease or otherwise convey the rehabilitated building to any person authorized to exercise condemnation powers under this section.
Sell the rehabilitated building to any person not authorized to exercise condemnation powers under this section. If the condemnor sells the building to any person not authorized to exercise condemnation powers under this section, the sale price shall be not less than fair market value of the rehabilitated building at the time of the sale.
If a residential building is not rehabilitated or conveyed under par. (a)
, the municipality may use the property condemned under this section for any lawful purpose, including any purpose which requires razing of the building.
See also s. Adm 92.001
, Wis. adm. code.
Relocation payment plan and assistance services. 32.25(1)(1)
Except as provided under sub. (3)
and s. 85.09 (4m)
, no condemnor may proceed with any activity that may involve the displacement of persons, business concerns or farm operations until the condemnor has filed in writing a relocation payment plan and relocation assistance service plan and has had both plans approved in writing by the department of administration.
The relocation assistance service plan shall contain evidence that the condemnor has taken reasonable and appropriate steps to:
Determine the cost of any relocation payments and services or the methods that are going to be used to determine such costs.
Assist owners of displaced business concerns and farm operations in obtaining and becoming established in suitable business locations or replacement farms.
Assist displaced owners or renters in the location of comparable dwellings.
Supply information concerning programs of federal, state and local governments which offer assistance to displaced persons and business concerns.
Assist in minimizing hardships to displaced persons in adjusting to relocation.
Secure, to the greatest extent practicable, the coordination of relocation activities with other project activities and other planned or proposed governmental actions in the community or nearby areas which may affect the implementation of the relocation program.
Determine the approximate number of persons, farms or businesses that will be displaced and the availability of decent, safe and sanitary replacement housing.
Assure that, within a reasonable time prior to displacement, there will be available, to the extent that may reasonably be accomplished, housing meeting the standards established by the department of administration for decent, safe and sanitary dwellings. The housing, so far as practicable, shall be in areas not generally less desirable in regard to public utilities, public and commercial facilities and at rents or prices within the financial means of the families and individuals displaced and equal in number to the number of such displaced families or individuals and reasonably accessible to their places of employment.
Assure that a person shall not be required to move from a dwelling unless the person has had a reasonable opportunity to relocate to a comparable dwelling.
does not apply to any of the following activities engaged in by a condemnor:
Obtaining an option to purchase property, regardless of whether the option specifies the purchase price, if the property is not part of a program or project receiving federal financial assistance.
The department of administration may assess condemnors required to file relocation payment plans and relocation assistance service plans under sub. (1)
. The department of administration shall prescribe a methodology to determine the amount of the assessments such that the amount of an assessment reflects the approximate costs incurred by the department in connection with reviewing and approving the plans filed by the condemnor. Assessments under this subsection shall be paid to the department of administration and credited to the appropriation account under s. 20.505 (1) (kr)
See also s. Adm 92.001
, Wis. adm. code.
Authority of the department of administration. 32.26(1)(1)
In addition to all other powers granted in this subchapter, the department of administration shall formulate local standards for decent, safe and sanitary dwelling accommodations.
The department of administration shall promulgate rules to implement and administer ss. 32.19
The department of administration and the department of transportation shall establish interdepartmental liaison procedures for the purpose of cooperating and exchanging information to assist the department of administration in promulgating rules under par. (a)
The department of administration may make investigations to determine if the condemnor is complying with ss. 32.19
. The department may seek an order from the circuit court requiring a condemnor to comply with ss. 32.19
or to discontinue work on that part of the project which is not in substantial compliance with ss. 32.19
. The court shall give hearings on these actions precedence on the court's calendar.
Upon the request of the department of administration, the attorney general shall aid and prosecute all necessary actions or proceedings for the enforcement of this subchapter and for the punishment of all violations of this subchapter.
Any displaced person may, prior to commencing court action against the condemnor under s. 32.20
, petition the department of administration for review of his or her complaint, setting forth in the petition the reasons for his or her dissatisfaction. The department may conduct an informal review of the situation and attempt to negotiate an acceptable solution. If an acceptable solution cannot be negotiated within 90 days, the department shall notify all parties, and the petitioner may then proceed under s. 32.20
. The informal review procedure provided by this subsection is not a condition precedent to the filing of a claim and commencement of legal action pursuant to s. 32.20
. In supplying information required by s. 32.25 (2) (d)
, the condemnor shall clearly indicate to each displaced person his or her right to proceed under this paragraph and under s. 32.20
, and shall supply full information on how the displaced person may contact the department of administration.