Any person who knowingly violates any provision of ss. 254.11
or any rule promulgated, or order issued, under those sections shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $5,000 per violation. The court may place the person on probation under s. 973.09
for a period not to exceed 2 years.
History: 1979 c. 221
; 1987 a. 332
; 1993 a. 27
; Stats. 1993 s. 254.30; 1993 a. 450
; 2015 a. 55
In this subchapter:
“By-product material" means any of the following:
Radioactive material, except special nuclear material, yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material.
The tailings or waste produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content.
“Decommissioning" means conducting final operational activities at a nuclear facility to dismantle site structures, to decontaminate site surfaces and remaining structures, to stabilize and contain residual radioactive material and to carry out any other activities necessary to prepare the site for postoperational care.
“General license" means a license, under requirements prescribed by the department by rule, to possess, use, transfer or acquire by-product material or devices or equipment utilizing by-product material without the filing of a license application by a person or issuance of licensing confirmation by the department.
“Ionizing radiation" means all radiations capable of producing ions directly or indirectly in their passage through matter, including all of the following:
Electromagnetic radiations, including X-rays and gamma rays.
Particulate radiations, including electrons, beta particles, protons, neutrons, alpha particles and other nuclear particles.
“Nonionizing radiation" means electromagnetic radiation, other than ionizing radiation, and any sonic, ultrasonic or infrasonic wave.
“Nuclear facility" means any reactor plant, any equipment or device used for the separation of the isotopes of uranium or plutonium, the processing or utilizing of radioactive material or handling, processing or packaging waste; any premises, structure, excavation or place of storage or disposition of waste or by-product material; or any equipment used for or in connection with the transportation of such material.
“Radiation" means both ionizing and nonionizing radiation.
“Radiation generating equipment" means a system, manufactured product or device or component part of such a product or device that, during operation, is capable of generating or emitting ionizing radiation without the use of radioactive material. “Radiation generating equipment" does not include a device that emits nonionizing radiation.
“Radiation installation" is any location or facility where radiation generating equipment is used or where radioactive material is produced, transported, stored, disposed of or used for any purpose.
“Radiation source" means radiation generating equipment or radioactive material.
“Radioactive material" includes any solid, liquid or gaseous substance which emits ionizing radiation spontaneously, including accelerator-produced material, by-product material, naturally occurring material, source material and special nuclear material.
“Source material" means uranium, thorium, any combination thereof in any physical or chemical form, or ores that contain by weight 0.05 percent or more of uranium, thorium, or any combination thereof. “Source material" does not include special nuclear material.
“Special nuclear material" means plutonium, uranium 233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the nuclear regulatory commission determines to be special nuclear material; or any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing. Special nuclear material does not include source material.
“Specific license" means a license, under requirements prescribed by the department by rule, to possess, use, manufacture, produce, transfer or acquire radioactive material or devices or equipment utilizing radioactive material.
“Transuranic" means a radioactive material having an atomic number that is greater than 92.
“X-ray tube" means any electron tube that is contained in a device and that is specifically designed for the conversion of electrical energy into X-ray energy.
Since radiations and their sources can be instrumental in the improvement of the health and welfare of the public if properly utilized, and may be destructive or detrimental to life or health if carelessly or excessively employed or may detrimentally affect the environment of the state if improperly utilized, it is hereby declared to be the public policy of this state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental to health. It is further the policy for the department to advise, consult and cooperate with other agencies of the state, the federal government, other states and interstate agencies and with affected groups, political subdivisions and industries; and, in general, to conform as nearly as possible to nationally accepted standards in the promulgation and enforcement of rules.
History: 1985 a. 29
; 1993 a. 27
; Stats. 1993 s. 254.33; 1995 a. 27
, 9116 (5)
; 1999 a. 9
See also ch. DHS 157
, Wis. adm. code.
Agreements with the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission transition. 254.335(1)(1)
The governor may, on behalf of the state, enter into agreements with the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission, as provided in 42 USC 2021
(b), to discontinue certain federal licensing and related regulatory authority with respect to by-product material, source material and special nuclear material and to assume state regulatory authority.
Any person who, on the effective date of an agreement specified under sub. (1)
, possesses a license issued by the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission that is subject to the agreement is considered to possess a specific license issued under s. 254.365 (1) (a)
or to fulfill requirements specified for a general license under s. 254.365 (1) (b)
. The specific license expires 90 days after the date of receipt by the person from the department of a notice of expiration of the license or on the date of expiration that was specified in the license issued by the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission, whichever is earlier.
History: 1999 a. 9
Powers and duties. 254.34(1)(1)
The department is the state radiation control agency and shall do all of the following:
Promulgate and enforce rules, including registration and licensing of sources of ionizing radiation, as may be necessary to prohibit and prevent unnecessary radiation exposure. The rules may incorporate by reference the recommended standards of nationally recognized bodies in the field of radiation protection and other fields of atomic energy, under the procedure established by s. 227.21 (2)
. The rules for by-product material, source material and special nuclear material shall be in accordance with the requirements of 42 USC 2021
) and shall otherwise be compatible with the requirements under 42 USC 2011
and regulations adopted under 42 USC 2011
A rule identical to a rule specified under par. (a)
may be promulgated by a state agency other than the department and an ordinance identical to a rule specified under par. (a)
may be enacted by a local governmental unit, but no rule may be promulgated or ordinance may be enacted that differs from a rule under par. (a)
and relates to the same subject area except as provided under ss. 293.15 (8)
, and 323.13 (2) (f)
Administer this subchapter and the rules promulgated under this subchapter.
Develop comprehensive policies and programs for the evaluation, determination and reduction of hazards associated with the use of radiation that are compatible with requirements of the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission for the regulation of by-product material, source material and special nuclear material. The department shall maintain all of the following records:
Files of all license applications, issuances, denials, transfers, renewals, modifications, suspensions and revocations under s. 254.365
Files of all registrants under s. 254.35
and any related administrative or judicial action.
Advise, consult and cooperate with other agencies of the state, the federal government, other states and interstate agencies, and with affected groups, political subdivisions and industries.
Encourage, participate in or conduct studies, investigations, training, research and demonstrations relating to the control of radiation hazards, the measurement of radiation, the effects on health of exposure to radiation and related problems as it deems necessary or advisable for the discharge of its duties under this subchapter.
Collect and disseminate health education information relating to radiation protection as it deems proper.
Review and approve plans and specifications for radiation sources submitted pursuant to rules promulgated under this subchapter; and inspect radiation sources, their shielding and immediate surroundings and records concerning their operation for the determination of any possible radiation hazard.
With respect to radon and with the department serving as the lead agency, do all of the following:
Develop and disseminate current radon information to the news media, builders, realtors and the general public.
Coordinate a program of measuring radon gas accumulation, including use of the radon canister counting system, in educational institutions, nursing homes, low-income housing, public buildings, homes, private industries and public service organizations.
Work with staff of local health departments to perform home surveys and diagnostic measurements and develop mitigation strategies for homes with elevated radon gas levels.
Develop training materials and conduct training of staff of local health departments, building contractors and others in radon diagnosis and mitigation methods.
Develop standards of performance for the regional radon centers and, from the appropriation account under s. 20.435 (1) (ed)
, distribute funds based on compliance with the standards to provide radon protection information dissemination from the regional radon centers.
Enter, at all reasonable times, any private or public property for the purpose of investigating conditions relating to radiation control.
Accept and utilize grants or other funds or gifts from the federal government and from other sources, public or private, for carrying out its functions under this subchapter. The studies, investigations, training and demonstration may be conducted independently, by contract, or in cooperation with any person or any public or private agency, including any political subdivision of the state.
Develop requirements for qualification, certification, training, and experience of an individual who does any of the following:
Utilizes, stores, transfers, transports, or possesses radioactive materials.
Acts as a radiation safety consultant to any person who possesses a license or registration issued by the department under this subchapter.
Recognize certification by another state or by a nationally recognized certifying organization of an individual to perform acts under par. (c) 1.
if the standards for the other state's certification or the organization's certification are substantially equivalent to the standards of the department for certification of individuals under par. (c)
See also ch. DHS 157
, Wis. adm. code.
Registration of ionizing radiation installations. 254.35(1)(1)
For every site in this state that has an ionizing radiation installation that is not exempted by this section or the rules of the department, the person in control of the installation, including installations in sites that are administered by a state agency or in an institution under the jurisdiction of a state agency, shall, prior to operation, register the ionizing radiation installation with the department. No ionizing radiation installation may be operated thereafter unless the site has been duly registered by January 1 of each year and a notice of the registration is possessed by the person in control. The application for registration shall be made on forms provided by the department which shall be devised to obtain any information that is considered necessary for evaluation of hazards. Multiple radiation sources at a single radiation installation and under the control of one person shall be listed on a single registration form. Registration fees shall be levied in accordance with sub. (3)
. Registration alone does not imply approval of manufacture, storage, use, handling, operation or disposal of the radiation installation or radioactive materials, but serves merely to inform the department of the location and character of radiation sources. Persons engaged in manufacturing, demonstration, sale, testing or repair of radiation sources are not required to list such sources on the registration form.
(2) Amended registration.
If the person in control increases the number of sources, source strength, rated output or energy of radiation produced in any installation, he or she shall notify the department of the increase prior to operation on the revised basis. The department shall record the change in the registration. No registration is transferable from one premises to another or from one person to another. If the person in control intends to transfer control of ownership of the radiation installation to another person, at least 15 days before the final transfer the registrant shall notify the department of the transfer and the intended transferee shall file under sub. (1)
an application for registration. If any installation is discontinued, the person in control shall notify the department within 30 days of the discontinuance.
An annual registration fee under pars. (b)
shall be levied for each site registration under this section. An additional penalty fee of $25, regardless of the number of X-ray tubes or generally licensed devices, shall be required for each registration whenever the annual fee for renewal is not paid prior to expiration of the registration. No additional fee may be required for recording changes in the registration information.
For a site having an ionizing radiation installation serving physicians and clinics, osteopaths and clinics, chiropractors or hospitals that possesses radioactive materials in any quantity, the fee shall be at least $36 for each site and at least $44 for each X-ray tube.
For a podiatric or veterinary site having an ionizing radiation installation, the fee shall be at least $36 for each site and at least $44 for each X-ray tube.
For a dental site having an ionizing radiation installation, the fee shall be at least $36 for each site and at least $30 for each X-ray tube.
For an industrial, school, research project or other site having an ionizing radiation installation, the fee shall be at least $36 for each site and at least $44 for each X-ray tube.
For any site that has generally licensed devices that are not exempted by the department, the fee shall be at least $100 for each site and at least $50 for each device that contains at least 370 MBq or 10 mCi of cesium-137; 37 MBq or 1.0 mCi of cobalt-60; 3.7 MBq or 0.1 mCi of strontium-90; or 37 MBq or 1.0 mCi of a transuranic.
The fees under this subsection shall be as stated unless the department promulgates rules to increase the annual registration fee for a site having an ionizing radiation installation, for an X-ray tube or for generally licensed devices that are not exempted by the department.
After initial registration under sub. (1)
, the department may exempt from annual registration any source of radiation that the department finds to be without undue radiation hazard.
Licensing of radioactive material. 254.365(1)(1)
No person may possess, use, manufacture, transport, store, transfer or dispose of radioactive material or a device or item of equipment that uses radioactive material or may operate a site that uses radioactive material that is not under the authority of the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission unless one of the following applies:
The person has a specific license issued by the department.
The person possesses a license issued by another state or by the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission that is reciprocally recognized by the department.
Application for a license under sub. (1) (a)
or for reciprocal recognition under sub. (1) (c)
shall be made on forms provided by the department.
(3) Modification or termination of license.
Within 30 days after any change to the information on a license issued under this section, the licensee shall inform the department of the change and the department shall record the changed information. Within 30 days after termination of an activity licensed under this section, the person in control of the activity shall notify the department. The department may require that the person in control submit to the department for approval a plan for decommissioning the activity.
The department shall promulgate rules for all of the following:
The issuance, modification, suspension, termination and revocation of specific licenses under sub. (1) (a)
under the standards specified in s. 254.34 (1) (a)
The department may assess fees, the amounts of which are prescribed by the department by rule, for any of the following: