The duty to furnish information under sub. (3)
also applies to each general partner on whom a demand is made to the extent the general partner knows any of the information described in sub. (2)
On 10 days' demand made in a record received by a limited partnership, a person dissociated as a general partner may have access to the information and records described in subs. (1)
at the locations specified in those subsections if all of the following apply:
The information or record pertains to the period during which the person was a general partner.
The person seeks the information or record in good faith.
A limited partnership shall respond to a demand made pursuant to sub. (5)
in the manner provided in s. 179.0304 (3)
A limited partnership may charge a person that makes a demand under this section the reasonable costs of copying, limited to the costs of labor and material.
A general partner or person dissociated as a general partner may exercise the rights under this section through an agent or, in the case of an individual under legal disability, a legal representative. Any restriction or condition imposed by the partnership agreement or under sub. (10)
applies both to the agent or legal representative and to the general partner or person dissociated as a general partner.
Subject to pars. (b)
, the rights under this section do not extend to a person as transferee.
If an individual dissociates as a general partner under s. 179.0603 (6) (b)
, the legal representative of the individual may exercise the rights under sub. (5)
of a person dissociated as a general partner.
In addition to any restriction or condition stated in its partnership agreement, a limited partnership, as a matter within the ordinary course of its activities and affairs, may impose reasonable restrictions and conditions on access to and use of information to be furnished under this section, including designating information confidential and imposing nondisclosure and safeguarding obligations on the recipient. In a dispute concerning the reasonableness of a restriction under this subsection, the partnership has the burden of proving reasonableness.
History: 2021 a. 258
Reimbursement; indemnification; advancement; and insurance. 179.0408(1)(1)
A limited partnership shall reimburse a general partner for any payment made by the general partner in the course of the general partner's activities on behalf of the partnership, if the general partner complied with ss. 179.0406
, and 179.0504
in making the payment.
A limited partnership shall indemnify and hold harmless a person with respect to any claim or demand against the person and any debt, obligation, or other liability incurred by the person by reason of the person's former or present capacity as a general partner, if the claim, demand, debt, obligation, or other liability does not arise from the person's breach of s. 179.0406
, or 179.0504
In the ordinary course of its activities and affairs, a limited partnership may advance reasonable expenses, including attorney fees and costs, incurred by a person in connection with a claim or demand against the person by reason of the person's former or present capacity as a general partner, if the person promises to repay the partnership if the person ultimately is determined not to be entitled to be indemnified under sub. (2)
A limited partnership may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of a general partner against liability asserted against or incurred by the general partner in that capacity or arising from that status even if, under s. 179.0105 (3) (h)
, the partnership agreement could not eliminate or limit the person's liability to the partnership for the conduct giving rise to the liability.
History: 2021 a. 258
Standards of conduct for general partners. 179.0409(1)(1)
A general partner owes to the limited partnership and, subject to s. 179.0901
, the other partners the duties of loyalty and care stated in subs. (2)
The fiduciary duty of loyalty of a general partner includes all of the following duties:
The duty to account to the limited partnership and hold as trustee for it any property, profit, or benefit derived by the general partner in or from any of the following:
The conduct or winding up of the partnership's activities and affairs.
The duty to refrain from dealing with the partnership in the conduct or winding up of the partnership's activities and affairs as or on behalf of a person having an interest adverse to the partnership.
The duty to refrain from competing with the partnership in the conduct or winding up of the partnership's activities and affairs.
The duty of care of a general partner in the conduct or winding up of the limited partnership's activities and affairs is to refrain from engaging in grossly negligent or reckless conduct or in conduct for which relief or exoneration from liability is not permitted under s. 179.0105 (3) (h)
A general partner shall discharge the duties and obligations under this chapter or under the partnership agreement and exercise any rights thereunder consistently with the contractual obligation of good faith and fair dealing.
A general partner does not violate a duty or obligation under this chapter or under the partnership agreement solely because the general partner's conduct furthers the general partner's own interest.
All the partners of a limited partnership, or one or more disinterested partners with authority to act in the matter, may authorize or ratify, after full disclosure of all material facts, a specific act or transaction by a general partner that otherwise would violate the duty of loyalty.
It is a defense to a claim under sub. (2) (b)
and any comparable claim in equity or at common law that the transaction was fair to the limited partnership.
If, as permitted by sub. (6)
or the partnership agreement, a general partner enters into a transaction with the limited partnership which otherwise would be prohibited by sub. (2) (b)
, the general partner's rights and obligations arising from the transaction are the same as those of a person that is not a general partner.
History: 2021 a. 258
CONTRIBUTIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
Form of contribution.
A contribution may consist of money or other property transferred to, services performed for, or another benefit provided to the limited partnership or an agreement to transfer money or property to, perform services for, or provide another benefit to the partnership.
History: 2021 a. 258
Liability for contribution. 179.0502(1)(1)
A person's obligation to make a contribution to a limited partnership is not excused by the person's death, disability, termination, or other inability to perform personally.
If a person does not fulfill an obligation to make a contribution other than money, the person is obligated at the option of the limited partnership to contribute money equal to the value, as stated in the required information, of the part of the contribution which has not been made.
The obligation of a person to make a contribution may be compromised only by the affirmative vote or consent of all the partners. If a creditor of a limited partnership extends credit or otherwise acts in reliance on an obligation described in sub. (1)
without knowledge or notice of a compromise under this subsection, the creditor may enforce the obligation.
History: 2021 a. 258
Sharing of and right to distributions before dissolution. 179.0503(1)(1)
Any distribution made by a limited partnership before its dissolution and winding up must be shared among the partners on the basis of the value, as stated in the required information when the limited partnership decides to make the distribution, of the contributions the limited partnership has received from each partner, except to the extent necessary to comply with a transfer effective under s. 179.0702
or charging order in effect under s. 179.0703
A person has a right to a distribution before the dissolution and winding up of a limited partnership only if the partnership decides to make an interim distribution. A person's dissociation does not entitle the person to a distribution.
A person does not have a right to demand or receive a distribution from a limited partnership in any form other than money. Except as otherwise provided in s. 179.0810 (5)
, a partnership may distribute an asset in kind only if each part of the asset is fungible with each other part and each person receives a percentage of the asset equal in value to the person's share of distributions.
If a partner or transferee becomes entitled to receive a distribution, the partner or transferee has the status of, and is entitled to all remedies available to, a creditor of the limited partnership with respect to the distribution. However, the partnership's obligation to make a distribution is subject to offset for any amount owed to the partnership by the partner or a person dissociated as a partner on whose account the distribution is made.
History: 2021 a. 258
Limitations on distributions. 179.0504(1)(1)
A limited partnership may not make a distribution, including a distribution under s. 179.0810
, if after the distribution any of the following applies:
The partnership would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the ordinary course of the partnership's activities and affairs.
The partnership's total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed, if the partnership were to be dissolved and wound up at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution and winding up of partners and transferees whose preferential rights are superior to the rights of persons receiving the distribution.
A limited partnership may base a determination that a distribution is not prohibited under sub. (1)
on any of the following:
Financial statements prepared on the basis of accounting practices and principles that are reasonable in the circumstances.
A fair valuation or other method that is reasonable under the circumstances.
Except as otherwise provided in sub. (5)
, the effect of a distribution under sub. (1)
is measured as follows:
The date money or other property is transferred or debt is incurred by the limited partnership.
The date the person entitled to the distribution ceases to own the interest or rights being acquired by the partnership in return for the distribution.
In the case of any distribution of indebtedness other than one under par. (a)
, as of the date the indebtedness is distributed.
The date the distribution is authorized, if the payment occurs not later than 120 days after that date.
The date the payment is made, if the payment occurs more than 120 days after the distribution is authorized.
A limited partnership's indebtedness to a partner or transferee incurred by reason of a distribution made in accordance with this section is at parity with the partnership's indebtedness to its general, unsecured creditors, except to the extent subordinated by agreement.
A limited partnership's indebtedness, including indebtedness issued as a distribution, is not a liability for purposes of sub. (1)
if the terms of the indebtedness provide that payment of principal and interest is made only if and to the extent that a payment of a distribution could then be made under this section. If the indebtedness is issued as a distribution, each payment of principal or interest is treated as a distribution, the effect of which is measured on the date the payment is made.
In measuring the effect of a distribution under s. 179.0810
, the liabilities of a dissolved limited partnership do not include any claim that has been disposed of under s. 179.0806
, or 179.0808
History: 2021 a. 258
Liability for improper distributions. 179.0505(1)(1)
If a general partner consents to a distribution made in violation of s. 179.0504
and in consenting to the distribution fails to comply with s. 179.0409
, the general partner is personally liable to the limited partnership for the amount of the distribution which exceeds the amount that could have been distributed without the violation of s. 179.0504
A person that receives a distribution knowing that the distribution violated s. 179.0504
is personally liable to the limited partnership but only to the extent that the distribution received by the person exceeded the amount that could have been properly paid under s. 179.0504
A general partner against which an action is commenced because the general partner is liable under sub. (1)
with respect to a distribution may do any of the following:
Implead any other person that is liable under sub. (1)
with respect to the distribution and seek to enforce a right of contribution from the person.
Implead any person that received the distribution in violation of sub. (2)
and seek to enforce a right of contribution from the person in the amount the person received in violation of sub. (2)
An action under this section is barred unless commenced not later than 2 years after the distribution.
History: 2021 a. 258
Dissociation as limited partner. 179.0601(1)(1)
A person does not have a right to dissociate as a limited partner before the completion of the winding up of the limited partnership.
A person is dissociated as a limited partner when any of the following applies:
The limited partnership knows or has notice of the person's express will to withdraw as a limited partner, but, if the person has specified a withdrawal date later than the date the partnership knew or had notice, on that later date.
An event stated in the partnership agreement as causing the person's dissociation as a limited partner occurs.
The person is expelled as a limited partner pursuant to the partnership agreement.
The person is expelled as a limited partner by the affirmative vote or consent of all the other partners if any of the following applies:
It is unlawful to carry on the limited partnership's activities and affairs with the person as a limited partner.
There has been a transfer of all of the person's transferable interest in the partnership, other than a transfer for security purposes or the entry of a charging order that is in effect under s. 179.0703
and that has not been foreclosed.