Every pump shall be installed with an above-ground discharge, an approved subsurface pitless adapter or pitless unit, or an approved subsurface well casing pipe connection.
When water is pumped or flows to discharge into a body of water, the end of the discharge pipe shall be extended at least 2 pipe diameters above the highest elevation of the water.
All well pump electrical installations shall conform to the Wisconsin Electrical Code, incorporated by reference in the Wisconsin Electrical Code, ch. SPS 316
, and the requirements specified in that chapter. In addition to these requirements, no electrical control box or any other electrical device shall be installed inside a well casing pipe, except where the device is directly incorporated into the manufactured pump assembly.
For water systems with multiple wells interconnected to a common plumbing piping system, the department may require additional equipment to reduce the possibility of back-flow or back-siphonage between wells. This equipment may include a separate pressure tank for each well, additional check valves, air gaps, reduced pressure principle backflow preventers, pressure switches, and electronic pump control devices.
Buried suction pipes shall be enclosed in a pressurized conduit and the annular space between the 2 pipes shall be maintained under system water pressure at all times provided by a pipe extending from the pump watertight to the conduit.
NR 812.32 Note
Note: In areas especially prone to lightning strikes to wells having submersible pumps, the department will grant variances to the prohibition against nonpressurized conduits.
When a suction pipe crosses a sewer, the suction pipe shall be laid according to the sewer separation requirements of s. NR 812.32 (4)
NR 812.32 Note
Note: A well casing pipe nipple, 1/2 threaded-1/2 beveled may be used in lieu of a full pipe coupling.
Pressurized conduits may terminate at the end of a horizontal pipe entering a basement. Any unburied pump suction pipe in the basement not enclosed in a pressurized conduit shall be at least one foot above the basement floor. A pressure or box elbow may be used to extend the pressurized conduit to a point above the basement floor. Pressure or box elbows may be buried.
A shallow well pump shall discharge to a seal-cross fitting before being connected to a pressure tank. A control valve may not be installed in the discharge pipe between the pump and the seal-cross fitting.
(b) Pump height.
The pump impeller or cylinder for off-set pumps shall be located at an elevation at least one foot above the basement, pit, or alcove floor.
Pump intake setting.
When a well is constructed in an unconsolidated formation, the pump intake shall be set at least 5 feet above the bottom of the well casing pipe or drive pipe casing or above the top of the screen. When a pump is replaced and set to a greater depth in a well, an attempt shall be made to ascertain the well construction so this requirement can be made. The pump shall provide an adequate quantity of water, where obtainable, for the intended purpose of the well.
NR 812.32 Note
Note: The department may grant variances to the 5-foot requirement of this subsection in low permeability, low yielding formations.
Buried discharge lines from submersible pumps. NR 812.32(4)(a)
(a) Pressure requirements.
Buried discharge lines from submersible pumps shall meet the requirements of s. NR 812.28
and shall be maintained under system pressure at all times. Check valves may not be placed in the pump discharge pipe beyond a buried section of pipe between a well and a pressure tank. The check valves shall be located at the top of the submersible pump, or in that portion of the discharge pipe before it becomes buried, or on the spool of an approved spool-type pitless unit.
When a water discharge line crosses a sanitary sewer, the water discharge line piping within 10 feet of the point of crossing shall be installed:
At an elevation at least 12 inches above the top of the sewer measured from the bottom of the water line; or
At least 18 inches below the bottom of the sewer measured from the top of the water line; or
When a water discharge line extends parallel or roughly parallel with a sewer, the water discharge line shall be separated a minimum distance from the sewer as follows:
Water discharge lines 2 1/2 inches in diameter and larger shall be separated at least 8 feet horizontally from a sanitary sewer, measured from center to center of the 2 pipes.
Except as provided in subd. 2. c.
, water discharge lines 2 inches or smaller in diameter shall be separated at least 30 inches horizontally from a sanitary sewer, measured from center to center of the 2 pipes.
Water discharge lines 2 inches in diameter and smaller may be installed less than 30 inches horizontally separated from a sanitary sewer if the bottom of the water discharge line is installed at least 12 inches above the sewer, except that portion of the water discharge line within 5 feet of the point where the line enters the building may be less than 12 inches above the sewer.
A water discharge line shall be separated from a storm sewer by at least 6 inches.
Back-flow and back-siphonage prevention.
When a well is installed with a submersible pump and an above ground discharge, it shall contain an UL approved check valve and an air-vacuum relief valve prior to any buried portion of the discharge pipe. When water is pumped to a pond or other body of water, the end of the pump discharge pipe shall be terminated at least 2 feet above the highest elevation of the water in the pond or other body of water.
A water discharge line may not be installed in, under or above sanitary sewer manholes, or under a POWTS treatment, holding or dispersal component, including a septic or holding tank, or any in-ground, at-grade, or mound soil absorption unit.
A water discharge line shall be separated at least 10 feet horizontally from a POWTS treatment, holding or dispersal component, including but not limited to a septic or holding tank, or any in-ground, at-grade, or mound soil absorption unit.
(a) Shallow-well suction pumps, deep-well piston pumps and deep-well jet pumps.
When the pump unit does not effectively seal the top of the well casing pipe and the well pump suction pipe or jet pump piping emerges from the top, a threaded fitting, or an approved type seal with expandable rubber or neoprene gasket shall be provided between the well casing pipe and the well pump suction pipe or jet pump piping.
NR 812.32(5)(b)1.1. `General sealing requirements.'
Lineshaft turbine pumps shall be mounted on the well or over the well casing pipe on a pump platform or well casing pipe flange so as to effectively seal the top of the well. Any opening through the pump discharge head shall be sealed watertight.
2. `Specific sealing requirements.'
The discharge head for a lineshaft turbine pump may be installed over the well casing pipe under the following conditions:
A minimum 12 inch high concrete pump platform shall be poured surrounding the well casing pipe. The well casing pipe shall project at least one inch up into the pump discharge head.
If the pump discharge head does not have enough recess to extend down over the well casing pipe at least one inch, a cast iron or steel subbase sanitary ring at least one inch thick shall be bolted to the base of the discharge head and installed surrounding the well casing pipe. A compressible neoprene gasket shall be installed between the base of the discharge head and the sanitary ring or subbase unless the metal surfaces are machined. As an alternative a flange may be welded to the top of the well casing pipe.
If a concrete pump platform is not to be poured surrounding the well casing pipe, a steel flange shall be welded watertight to the top of the well casing pipe. The base of the discharge head shall be bolted to the casing flange and a compressible neoprene gasket shall be installed between the 2.
The well casing pipe may be enlarged above grade to accommodate the pump column flange, by fillet welding or threading a steel flange plate watertight to the top of the well casing pipe. A piece of larger diameter pipe meeting Table B requirements shall then be fillet welded watertight to the top of the flange plate. The pump discharge head shall then be installed as provided in subd. 2. a.
Water lubricated lineshaft turbine pumps shall be used for potable wells. In water levels deeper than 50 feet, the pump column bearings shall be pre-lubricated prior to pump start up. Lubrication during pump backspin shall be provided if necessary. Water for lubrication of pumps shall be supplied by piping connected to a supplemental pressure system of the potable water supply. Water lubricated lineshaft turbine pumps are recommended for nonpotable wells.
Oil lubricated lineshaft turbine pumps may be used for potable wells when the pumping water level is deeper than 250 feet except when the pump operation is expected to lower the water level in the well to a depth less than 5 feet above the bottom of the well casing pipe. Oil lubricated lineshaft turbine pumps may be used for wells provided the lubricants are USDA or FDA approved food contact grade formulations.
NR 812.32 Note
Note: Such formulations are usually based on National Formulary white, food grade mineral oil.
NR 812.32 Note
Note: The department may allow the installation of oil lubricated lineshaft turbine pumps for potable wells when the pumping water level is less than 250 feet deep when unique circumstances warrant such installation.
Discharge lines from lineshaft turbine pumps. NR 812.32(6)(a)
Discharge lines from lineshaft turbine pumps that are maintained under system pressure at all times shall contain an air-vacuum relief valve preceding a check valve. A well vent shall be installed in the pump base. High capacity well pump installation is depicted in Figure 3 of ch. NR 812 Appendix
NR 812.32 Note
Note: Where backspin may be expected to occur, the department recommends a time delay or backspin ratchet be provided to protect the motor in the event the pump controls are energized before the pump stops backspinning.
Discharge lines from lineshaft turbine pumps shall contain an UL approved check valve and an air-vacuum relief valve near the pump, and prior to any buried portion of discharge pipe. When water is pumped to a pond or other body of water, the end of the pump discharge pipe shall be extended at least 2 feet above the highest elevation of the water in the pond or other body of water.
Hand pump heads shall be designed and fabricated so there are no unprotected openings, other than the spout, to the interior of the pump. The water spout shall turn downward and be closed on top. If a separate watertight port is provided for priming, it shall be sealed watertight when not being used. Unsealed openings may not exist in the pumpbase. If the pump is installed outside, a concrete crack-free watertight pump platform at least 6 feet in diameter shall be provided. The top of this platform may be at ground grade, but in any case the platform shall be mounded so that water does not accumulate around the well. If excess water flow from the pump spout is channelized, it shall be directed to a point at least 8 feet from the well with a drain pipe or watertight channel.
Hand pumps shall be connected firmly to the well casing pipe by threading in small diameter well casing pipe or by bolting the pumpbase flange to a well casing pipe flange with a gasket to seal the top of the casing. Other types of hand pump bases may be used if they meet the approval requirements specified in s. NR 812.091
for vermin-proof caps and seals.
Casing not part of pump installation.
The well casing pipe for any drilled well greater than 2 inches in diameter may not be used as a delivery pipe in the pumping operation, except when the well casing pipe is under continuous pressure as with a packer-jet pump installation.
(a) Underground pipe connections.
Underground pipe connections may only be made to a flowing well with an approved pitless adapter.
(b) Unprotected suction lines.
An off-set shallow well pump may not be connected directly to the buried pipe exiting a pitless adapter or unit of a flowing well or to a pipe extending out of the seal at the top of the well and redirected back into the ground. Buried piping from the flowing well shall discharge to a surge tank having either an overflow pipe or an air-vacuum relief valve installed in the top of the tank. A booster pump shall be connected to the surge tank and discharge into a pressure tank.
When a flowing well is placed in use, the flow from the well shall be regulated by means of a control valve with a screened outlet or with a restricting orifice to prevent waste of water. The control valve shall be restricted as much as possible and closed if the flow ceases.
A controlled overflow pipe or other means shall be installed for a flowing well to prevent damage from overflowing water or to prevent freezing of the top of the well.
When necessary, overflow piping shall be installed to prevent flow of water up the outside of the well casing pipe or to prevent freezing of water inside the casing. When installed, the flow of water from the discharge pipe shall be limited to a minimum so as to preserve groundwater and water pressure. The overflow pipe shall be installed to extend through the well cap or seal or shall extend off a surge tank in the basement. The overflow pipe may be attached to the outside wall of the well casing pipe if both the point of exit from the well casing pipe and the terminus of the overflow are at least 12 inches above the ground grade and the connection to the well casing pipe is watertight. The overflow pipe shall terminate at least 2 pipe diameters above any drain inlet at the well site, in a building or in a building basement. If the overflow is installed at the well head, the overflow shall extend at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation and a free air gap of at least 2 pipe diameters above the drain shall be provided. The receiving drain shall discharge to the ground or to a gravel pocket at a point at least 8 feet from the well. A funnel receptacle shall be installed on the inlet of the drain to accept all of the overflow water, to prevent splashing and prevent ponding of water around the well casing pipe. If a pump is installed in the well and the well stops flowing during pumping, a screen shall be installed on the overflow pipe.
Illustrations of complying pump installations for flowing wells are shown in Figures 4 to 6 of ch. NR 812 Appendix
NR 812.32 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (2) (a) 1. and 5., (6) (b) and Figure 32, renum. (4) (b), (6) (c), (7) and (8) to be (4) (b) 1., (7) to (9) and am. (7), (9) (c) 2. and 3., cr. (1) (a) 6., (d) and (4) (b) 2., Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; correction in (4) (b) 1. c. made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, May, 2000, No. 533
; correction in (4) (b) 1. c. made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; reprinted to reinsert omitted text in (4) Register January 2012 No. 67
; CR 13-099
: am. (1) (a) (intro.), cr. (1) (e), (f), am. (2) (b), cr. (4) (c), (d), am. (5) (b) 3. b., (6) (b), (9) (c) 3., cr. (9) (d) Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; correction in (9) (d) title made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 2., Stats., Register September 2014 No. 705
; CR 18-095
: am. (1) (a) 2., (c), (2) (a) 1., 3., r. (2) (a) 5., am. (2) (b), (3), (5) (b) 2. a. to d., (6) (a), (7), (9) (d) Register June 2020 No. 774
, eff. 7-1-20; correction in (1) (a) 1. to 4., (c) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register June 2020 No. 774
NR 812.33 Water storage vessels.
The department recommends that pressure tanks be sufficiently sized to provide the minimum pump run time recommended by the pump manufacturer.
NR 812.33 Note
Community water systems regulated under ch. NR 811
are required to have a gross pressure tank volume of 10 times the pump capacity.
NR 812.33(1)(a)(a) General.
Tanks relying on expansion of a flexible membrane within a restricting container, rather than on a water to air interface to provide pressure in the water system, may be used. All pressure tanks for storing potable water under pressure, including those having an air space for expansion, shall be identified by seal, label or plate indicating the manufacturers name and model number and shall meet the following specifications:
Pressure tanks to be buried shall be constructed of steel, fiberglass or other comparable non-metallic composite material. Steel tanks with metallic discharge piping, meeting the requirements of s. NR 812.28
, shall be used in contaminated soil areas. Steel tanks to be buried shall have a minimum wall thickness of 0.25 inches. Fiberglass or other non-metallic tanks to be buried shall have the structural strength to prevent collapse of the tank. Manufacturer's instructions shall be followed. All buried tanks shall be back-filled in place with sand, compacted in place. Steel pitless receiver tanks, when they are part of approved pitless units attached directly to the well casing pipe, shall also have a minimum wall thickness of 0.25 inches. Any air unloader pipe, tank air valve or any other pipe connection extending up to the ground surface shall be steel pipe meeting the requirements of s. NR 812.28
and shall terminate at least 12 inches above ground grade.
NR 812.33 Note
The department recommends that a surface air check kit be installed for a buried pressure tank to check, maintain and adjust the air pressure pre-charge of the tank. Also, in uncontaminated soil areas, pipe and pipe connections to the tank should be made with flexible pipe and fittings meeting the requirements of s. NR 812.28
to minimize strain or pressure on the tank or the tank fittings.
Pressure tanks having a gross volume in excess of 500 gallons, and not having a water to air interface bladder, shall have the following:
If the tank is buried, all electrical controls extended to at least above ground grade.
Each tank shall have an access manhole, a drain, and pressure gauge, pressure relief valve, water sight glass and pressure or probe operated controls for the pumps.
Any interior protective materials including but not limited to liners, paints, coatings,or sealants shall be certified for potable water use under NSF Standard 61.
NR 812.33 Note
Note: The department recommends that the tank have bypass piping to allow operation of the system while the tank is being repaired or painted.
(b) Pressure tanks larger than 1,000 gallons gross volume.
An approval shall be obtained for pressure tanks having a gross volume greater than 1,000 gallons. The department recommends that pressure tanks having a volume greater than 1,000 gallons be installed above ground. When approved, the tank shall be installed according to the requirements of par. (a)
. When tanks of this size are approved for burial, the head end of the tank shall be cradled in a basement wall or in the wall of an approved pit to provide access and shall be constructed to the specifications for pits described in s. NR 812.36 (2)
to provide access to the head of the tank. The pit shall have other additional support cradles. Pitless receiver tanks having a volume greater than 1,000 gallons may be installed without an access pit.
Nonpressure storage vessels.
Nonpressure storage vessels, designed as part of a potable water supply system, may not be installed without approval from the department under s. NR 812.09
. Approval is required regardless of whether or not there is a free-air gap in the water inlet line upstream of the vessel. Vessel approval is based on methods of construction and sanitary provisions. The installation of a surge tank is exempt from this approval requirement.
(b) Reservoirs and elevated storage tanks.
A reservoir may be constructed to store water if it is constructed above the groundwater level and in accordance with this paragraph and Figure 7 of ch. NR 812 Appendix
Gravity supply pipes shall be located entirely above grade and shall be conducted to the reservoir through the roof or through the curbing for the manhole. The overflow pipe described in subd. 1. b.
may be installed at such a level to provide a free-air gap. Buried supply pipe shall be maintained under a continuous pressure head which is greater than the ground surface elevation.
NR 812.33 Note
Note: The department recommends that trees and shrubs not be planted within 25 feet of a reservoir.
An exposed overflow pipe shall be located just under the roof of the reservoir or outside the elevated storage tank and shall extend at least 8 feet away. The overflow pipe shall terminate with a downturned, screened elbow located at least 12 inches above ground grade. The pipe shall discharge onto a splash plate and have sufficient diameter to permit wasting water at a rate in excess of the inflow from the water source.
2. `Steel construction specifications.'
Steel reservoirs or elevated storage tanks shall meet the requirements of AWWA D100-84 for welded construction or AWWA D103-80 for bolted construction.
Water storage structures shall be designed with convenient access for cleaning and maintenance.
4. `Concrete construction specifications.'
Reservoirs constructed of concrete shall meet the following specifications:
An impervious flexible water stop strip for wall construction joint and a reservoir drain facility shall be installed before the concrete is poured.
The floor of the reservoir shall be reinforced poured concrete with a thickness of at least 6 inches and shall have a curbing wall 6 inches high and 6 inches thick having a keyway or a flexible water stop strip for a construction joint with the walls.
The walls of the reservoir shall be reinforced poured concrete at least 6 inches thick and terminate above the established ground grade.