When a well has a gravel pack that extends up to or within 20 feet of the ground surface, at least the top 20 feet of the gravel pack shall be jetted out or removed in some other manner. Once the gravel pack has been removed, the open annular space shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout or concrete applied with a pressure method injected through a tremie pipe.
When a well terminating in a pit is filled and sealed, the pit shall also be filled and sealed, except when the pit is an alcove or if the pit will only be used for the purpose of housing valves and the pit complies with s. NR 812.36 (1)
. The filling of a well pit shall meet all of the following requirements:
All water system features shall be removed from the pit prior to filling and sealing.
One wall of the pit shall be knocked out or perforated with several holes.
The pit shall be filled and sealed with clean native soil less permeable than the soil surrounding the pit.
When wells having nonpressurized conduits are filled and sealed, the basement end of the conduit shall be permanently sealed with a watertight cap or seal.
Once obstructions have been removed from a well or a drillhole, the well or drillhole shall be filled and sealed, from the bottom up with the use of a tremie pipe, except where the use of a tremie pipe is specifically exempted. As allowed in this section, all materials used to fill and seal wells and drillholes shall meet the specifications of s. NR 812.11 (15)
Use of bentonite chips or pellets.
Bentonite chips or pellets may be used to fill and seal wells and drillholes, subject to all of the following restrictions:
Bentonite chips may not be used for wells and drillholes less than 3 inches in diameter.
The total depth may not be deeper than 500 feet and the number of feet of standing water in the well or drillhole may not be more than 350 feet.
Bentonite chips or pellets may not be used for any well or drillhole filled with drilling mud or bentonite slurry.
Any bentonite chips or pellets placed below the water table shall be screened and poured in a manner that prevents bridging.
The depth of bentonite chips or pellets shall be monitored during the filling process, at a minimum of once every calculated 10 bags, to ensure the bentonite chips or pellets are not bridging in the well or drillhole. Any bridge of the bentonite chips or pellets shall be removed.
After installing bentonite chips or bentonite pellets, clear water obtained from an uncontaminated source shall be poured into the well to hydrate the bentonite chips. Water shall be introduced until the water level rises to the top of the well casing and the well will not accept any additional water at the time the individual who performs the filling and sealing operation leaves the site.
Drilled wells and driven point wells larger than 3 inches in diameter shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout, sand-cement grout, concrete, bentonite chips, or bentonite pellets.
Drilled wells and driven point wells less than or equal to 3 inches in diameter shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout poured or pumped down the drive pipe or drillhole or by poured bentonite pellets. The use of a tremie pipe is not required.
Drillholes less than 3 inches in diameter that extend below the water table shall be filled and sealed with bentonite pellets, or neat cement grout.
Drillholes less than 3 inches in diameter that do not extend below the water table may be filled and sealed with granular bentonite.
Drillholes 3 inches in diameter or greater shall be filled with drilling mud, cuttings, bentonite pellets, or bentonite chips to fill and seal the drillhole up to 10 feet below ground surface. From the existing ground surface to 10 feet below grade, the drillhole shall be filled with bentonite chips or pellets and hydrated with clear water obtained from an uncontaminated source.
The top 18 inches near the surface may consist of asphalt, concrete, sand and gravel base coarse, or native soil. Sealing material in drillholes completed in agricultural areas may be terminated 30 inches below the ground surface and clean native soil may be placed on top of the settled sealing material to avoid interference with agricultural activities.
Wells completed in bedrock formations shall be filled completely and sealed from the bottom up with neat cement grout, sand-cement grout, concrete, bentonite chips, or pellets except bentonite chips are not allowed for wells and drillholes less than 3 inches in diameter.
Chlorinated sand-free pea gravel may be used to fill and seal an uncontaminated bedrock well deeper than 250 feet. Pea gravel may be poured without the use of a tremie pipe provided the well is sounded at 50-foot intervals to prevent bridging. When using pea gravel, the well shall be filled from the bottom up to 20 feet below the bottom of the casing pipe, or up to the 250-foot depth, whichever is deeper.
When a well extends through the Maquoketa Shale formation, a neat cement grout, concrete, or bentonite chip or pellet plug at least 40 feet thick shall be placed and centered at the contact surface between the Maquoketa Shale and adjacent geologic formations, both above and below. When a well extends through the top of the uppermost Cambrian Sandstone formation or the top of the Eau Claire Formation of the Cambrian Sandstone, a neat cement grout, concrete, or bentonite chip or pellet plug at least 40 feet thick shall be placed and centered at the upper formation boundary whenever these layers are present in the open bedrock drillhole.
Drillholes completed in bedrock formations.
Drillholes completed into bedrock formations shall be filled and sealed from the bottom up with neat cement grout, sand cement grout, bentonite chips, or bentonite pellets except bentonite chips are not allowed for wells and drillholes less than 3 inches in diameter.
Dug or bored wells shall have the cover removed and the top five feet of curbing or concrete wall removed. Rock curbing may be caved into the drillhole as the well is being sealed only if done in a manner to prevent bridging. The well shall be filled and sealed using clean clay or silt, clean native soil, bentonite chips or pellets, concrete, sand-cement grout, or neat cement grout if constructed in unconsolidated formations.
Dug or bored wells constructed partially or completely into bedrock shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout, sand-cement grout, concrete, or bentonite chips or pellets to a point at least two feet above the top of the bedrock. The remainder of the well or drillhole may be filled and sealed using any of the materials listed in par. (c) 1.
Dug or bored wells 18 inches in diameter and smaller shall be filled and sealed by means of a tremie pipe, except when bentonite chips or pellets are used or when clean clay or silt or clean native soil is used and the dug or bored well is 25 feet deep or less.
Heat exchange drillholes.
The filling and sealing of heat exchange drillholes shall be completed according to all of the following requirements:
If the loops for a heat exchange drillhole have not been grouted in place and can be removed from the drillhole, the loops shall be removed before filling and sealing.
If the loop for a heat exchange drillhole has been grouted into the drillhole and cannot be removed, the loop shall be evacuated of all fluids and cement or bentonite grout shall be pumped into the loop. The loops may be left in place after grouting or may be cut off below ground surface.
Materials for filling and sealing a flowing well shall be neat cement or neat cement with approved additives to increase the grout density and shall meet the requirements of s. NR 812.11 (15)
. The flow of water at the ground surface from a flowing well shall be reduced or stopped prior to filling and sealing using one of the following methods:
Centering a tremie pipe in the drillhole or casing within an inflatable packer.
Extending the well casing to a height above the piezometric surface.
Placing chlorinated sand-free pea gravel in a bedrock well from the bottom of the well to no higher than 40 feet from the bottom of the casing pipe.
Pumping water out of a nearby well completed in the same flowing formation.
Well and drillhole filling and sealing reports. NR 812.26(7)(a)(a)
A well and drillhole filling and sealing report shall be filed with the department no later than 30 days after the well or drillhole is filled and sealed.
The filling and sealing report shall be filed with the department electronically by the person performing the filling and sealing work and shall include all of the following information:
A complete and accurate description of the location of the well or drillhole that was filled and sealed.
The presence of any unused wells or drillholes that are not filled and sealed for which they have knowledge.
NR 812.26 History
History: CR 18-095
: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774
, eff. 7-1-20; correction in (4) (a) (intro.) made under s. 35.17
, Stats., and correction in (6) (i) (intro.) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7.
, Stats., Register June 2020 No. 774
NR 812.27 Pump installer requirements.
A pump installer shall perform pump installing in accordance with all of the following requirements:
An individual who performs pump installing is required to be a licensed pump installer except that a license is not required for any of the following individuals provided all other requirements of this subchapter are met:
An individual who is employed by a licensed pump installer or a person registered as a business to perform pump installing.
An individual master plumber licensed under ch. 145
, Stats., who is installing a pressure tank.
Except when the reporting requirements of s. NR 812.04 (2)
are complied with, a pump may not be installed, replaced or serviced in a well that is not properly located according to the minimum location and separation requirements in effect at the time of construction and:
According to the minimum location requirements in effect at the time of installation of any potential source of contamination, if the source was installed more recently, or
Existing pits and alcoves shall comply with the conditions of a department approval to construct the pit or alcove, or to the minimum standards of s. NR 812.42 (2)
Pitless adapters and units.
Pump installers or persons installing pumps shall use approved pitless adapters and pitless units to make subsurface connection to wells as specified in s. NR 812.31
Disinfection and well seals.
The pump installer shall disinfect any potable well and water system according to s. NR 812.41 (1)
upon completion of the original pump installation and thereafter, anytime the well is entered for the purpose of measuring or diagnosing any feature or problem with the well or after the well is entered for rehabilitation, redevelopment, reconditioning or cleaning or if the well is entered for the purpose of installing, replacing or repairing any equipment located within the well. Following disinfection, the disinfectant shall be flushed according to s. NR 812.41 (2)
. The disinfection and flushing shall be completed before the system is placed into service. The pump installer shall seal or cover the well with a vermin–proof cap or seal approved for use under s. NR 812.091
. The pump installer may designate the owner, the property lessee, or any other person to flush the system.
Water sample collection, analysis and reporting.
The pump installer shall collect water samples, submit them to a certified laboratory for analysis, and provide the test results as specified in s. NR 812.46
Notification of contaminated wells.
Pump installers shall notify the well owner as soon as practicable, but no later than 48 hours, after the pump installer is informed that the water from the well contains contaminant levels in excess of the standards specified in s. NR 812.06
Bacteria positive wells.
Pump installers shall return to the well site to diagnose and attempt to correct a problem when an initial sample from a potable well is positive for coliform bacteria. Corrective action should be taken no later than 10 days after the pump installer is informed of a total coliform bacteria-positive result or prior to the well being placed into service, whichever is later. After corrective action the well shall be disinfected and flushed in accordance with s. NR 812.41
and sampled in accordance with s. NR 812.46 (1)
Potable water supplies shall be protected to prevent back-flow, back-siphonage and cross-connections according to the requirements in s. SPS 382.41
and s. NR 812.32 (1) (f)
When a pump installer has performed pump installation work not in compliance with this chapter, the pump installer shall return to bring the system into compliance. The pump installer shall pay all costs for bringing the installation into compliance with this chapter, other than those costs that would have been charged for an initially complying installation.
Open annular space.
A pump installer may not install a pump in a well having an open annular space that extends deeper than twice the depth of the pitless adapter or pitless unit. When an annular space is open to a depth greater than this depth, the pump installer shall inform the well driller so that the well driller knows to return to the job site and seal the annular space according to s. NR 812.20
. The pump installation shall not be completed until the well driller has resealed the annular space. If the annular space is open to a depth less than or equal to twice the depth of the pitless adapter, the pump installer may seal the open annular space with an approved granular bentonite hydrated with clear water from an uncontaminated source.
When required to measure well casing pipe depth by this chapter or at the request of the department, the pump installer shall document the measurement on a form specified by the department and submit the form to the well owner and the department no later than 30 days after performing the measurement.
The pump installer shall provide complete and accurate information on the form, including well owner information, well location, well casing pipe depth, total well depth, and distances to potential contaminant sources.
NR 812.27 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (2), (4) to (6), cr. (8) and (9), Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; correction in (9) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, September, 1996, No. 489
; correction in (9) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; CR 13-099
: am. (5), r. and recr. (6), am. (8), (9), cr. (10), (11) Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; CR 18-095
: cr. (intro.), r. and recr. (1), am. (3), (5), r. and recr. (6), am. (7), r. and recr. (8), cr. (9) (title), (10) (title), am. (11), cr. (12) Register June 2020 No. 774
, eff. 7-1-20; correction in (1) (b) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register June 2020 No. 775
NR 812.28 Pump installation equipment and supply pipe.
Pump installation products and equipment may not be used unless they are approved for use under s. NR 812.091
. Pump discharge and supply piping shall conform to the requirements specified in s. NR 812.11
for steel pipe or shall conform to the requirements in the “Pipe and Tubing for water services and private water mains" table in s. SPS 384.30
, except that Type M copper pipe may not be installed underground. Pipe used for year-round installations shall be protected from freezing. Lead-based solder for pipe connections may not be used. Limitations on the use of plastic pipe are found in s. SPS 384.30
. Plastic pipe may not be used for buried pipe in soils known to be contaminated with volatile organic chemicals. Plastic pipe may be used as drop pipe installed within a well or for discharge piping between the well and the building served, provided it meets standards specified in s. SPS 384.30
and has a minimum pressure rating of 150 pounds per square inch. When plastic pipe extends through the seal of a well with an above-ground discharge, the portion of the plastic pipe extending above-ground from the well shall be protected from sunlight or the plastic pipe used shall be of the type with inhibitors recommended for use in direct sunlight.
NR 812.28 Note
Note: The department recommends the installation of torque arresters on the drop pipe for submersible pumps. The department recommends that galvanized pipe not be used when the water quality is known to be corrosive.
NR 812.28 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, May, 2000, No. 533
; correction made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; CR 13-099
: am. Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; CR 18-095
: am. Register June 2020 No. 774
, eff. 7-1-20.
Except as provided in sub. (3)
, a pump installer shall ensure that the watertight well casing pipe for a well terminates at least 12 inches above the established ground surface, above a pumphouse or building floor or above any concrete or asphalt platform surrounding the well casing.
When a low capacity well is located in an area of traffic or where the well terminus is at risk of contact by vehicles, machinery, equipment or any other hazard that poses a significant threat of damage to the well terminus, the well shall be protected from physical damage by either using rigid metal posts or comparable barriers or by terminating it within a driveway ramp constructed in accordance with s. NR 812.36
For a well in a floodplain, the top of a well and an overflow outlet from a flowing well shall terminate at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation. A pit or alcove may not be installed to enclose a well or pump installation.
When a well terminates in a walkout basement meeting the requirements of s. NR 812.08 (2) (d)
, the top of the well shall terminate a minimum of 12 inches above the basement floor.
NR 812.29 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; CR 13-099
: renum. section to (1), (3), (4) and am., cr. (2), (5) Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; CR 18-095
: am. (1), (3), r. (4), r, and recr. (5) Register June 2020 No. 774
, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.30 Vermin-proof well caps and seals. NR 812.30(1)(1)
A new well shall be sealed or covered with a weather- and vermin-proof compression type well cap or seal approved for use under s. NR 812.091
and installed on or in the top of the well casing pipe.
Well seal type.
When a sanitary well seal is used to cover the upper well terminal, it shall have a one-piece top plate. A split top plate seal may not be installed unless it is enclosed in a substantial, permanent weather-proof shelter meeting the requirements of s. NR 812.40
A screened downward facing well vent or other vent may be provided for the well cap or seal for drilled wells. When the well is a flowing well and the well head must be maintained watertight or when there is concern for air entrained bacteria to enter the well through the vent, the vent opening may be plugged watertight with a threaded plug. Vent pipes extending above the well casing pipe shall terminate in a downward facing bend and shall be screened. Screens shall be made of material not easily corroded and shall be firmly seated in the vent opening. Vent openings incorporated as part of the underside of an approved well cap or seal are allowed.
NR 812.30 Note
Note: The department recommends a vent be provided for the well cap or seal of a well that has significant water level drawdowns during normal pump operation. This recommendation does not apply to flowing wells.
Well caps or seals may not be used as a hold-down device to prevent submersible pump discharge piping from coming off a pitless adapter or unit. A locking clamp or other similar approved device may be used to hold the submersible pump discharge pipe in place.
Conduit for electrical wiring.
Where electrical wiring emerges from an underground installation to supply well pump equipment it shall be protected from physical damage by installing conductors or cables within a nonmetallic or steel raceway. The raceway material shall be: Listed, Schedule 80 sunlight resistant Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Conduit (Type PVC), Listed, Intermediate Metal Conduit (IMC), or galvanized Rigid Metal Conduit. The conduit shall be threaded tightly into the well cap or shall be secured and sealed in an equivalent manner. Where a direct buried electrical cable supplies the well, the bottom of the conduit providing physical protection shall extend a minimum of 2 feet below grade. The conduit shall be sealed above grade in a watertight manner with a listed fitting, or by use of 100% silicone, urethane, or Butyl caulking. Where the conduit or raceway extends continuously from the well to a building or pump equipment enclosure, both ends of the conduit or raceway shall be sealed in a watertight manner as described in this paragraph.
Preparation of top of the well casing pipe.
Any jagged edges or other significant irregularities in the top of the well casing pipe shall be removed by the well driller or the pump installer before the vermin-cap or seal is installed.