well driller or well constructor shall use a mud balance to measure the density of grouting or sealing materials to meet the requirements of this section.
A well driller or well constructor is prohibited from the use of lead compounds or lead components to lubricate and seal drill stem joints or any equipment that enters a well. All material permanently installed in a well by a well driller or well constructor must be lead-free as defined by the Safe Drinking Water Act.
NR 812.11 Note
Note: The Safe Drinking Water Act defines “lead-free” as a weighted average of 0.25% lead calculated across the wetted surfaces of a pipe, pipe fitting, plumbing fitting, and fixture and 0.2% lead for solder and flux.
Within any string of well casing pipe, all lengths of pipe used shall be of the same diameter.
Steel well casing pipe.
Steel well casing pipe and liner pipe shall be new, unused, and nonreclaimed pipe. The pipe shall meet ASTM or API standards and shall also meet all of the following requirements:
Except as provided in par. (b)
, well casing pipe shall have the dimensions and weights specified in Table B. Well casing pipe used in initial well construction or liner pipe used for reconstruction of a well with water containing contaminant levels in excess of the standards specified in s. NR 812.06
shall be new steel pipe meeting any of the following standards:
ASTM A 589—Type I, Grade A or B—Type II, Grade A, Type III—driven well pipe.
Nonpotable well pipe exception.
Pipe for nonpotable wells greater than 12-inch diameter shall have a minimum wall thickness of at least 0.250 inches and be able to withstand the structural stress imposed by construction conditions.
Defective pipe may not be used in water well construction. The well driller or well constructor shall inspect steel well casing pipe for defects prior to use. Defective pipe includes all of the following:
Pipe with defects, such as cracks, open welds, partial or incomplete welds, open seams, laminations in pipe wall that exceed 12.5% of wall thickness, or slivers that exceed 12.5% of wall thickness.
Pipe with coatings containing contaminants on the inside of the pipe.
Any length of pipe composed of multiple pieces that is not straight and squarely aligned, or is incorrectly mated and welded in accordance with the requirements specified in par. (f)
Each length of well casing pipe 2 inches or larger in diameter shall meet the requirements in Table B and shall be legibly marked in conformance with the ASTM or API marking specifications including color identification in the form of bands. Except as identified in this paragraph, each length of pipe shall show all of the following:
Whether seamless or welded and type of weld and the heat number.
When the department determines that the water well casing pipe or the pipe markings are of questionable condition, the department may request that the well driller or well constructor provide the mill certification papers obtained directly from the manufacturer that list the pipe specifications and match the heat numbers on the pipe.
Assembly and installation.
A well driller or well constructor shall assemble and install steel well casing in accordance with all of the following:
When steel well casing pipe is driven or installed it shall be accomplished in a manner such that damage to the well casing pipe does not result.
Steel well casing pipe shall be assembled watertight by correctly mated, recessed type couplings having the weights and diameters as listed in Table B or by means of welded joints.
Two-inch diameter or smaller well casing pipe couplings shall have at least 11-1/2 threads per inch. Larger diameter couplings shall have at least 8 threads per inch.
Steel well casing pipe to be assembled with welded joints shall have beveled ends and the bevels shall be properly aligned and clean and free of burs prior to welding. The casing shall be welded using the procedures of s. NR 812.18
and the weld shall fill the bevel.
- See PDF for table
Thermoplastic well casing pipe.
Thermoplastic well casing pipe and couplings used in the construction of wells shall be new and unused and shall meet all of the following requirements:
Thermoplastic well casing pipe and couplings shall be polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) material produced to and meeting the ASTM F480 specification as well as all of the following requirements:
Styrene-rubber thermoplastic well casing pipe, including ASTM F 480 may not be used.
Thermoplastic well casing shall have a standard dimension ratio of 21, 17, or 13.5.
Well casing pipe, pipe couplings, cement, primer, and other components used shall meet the requirements of NSF Standard 14 as it relates to well casing pipe, or an approved equivalent organization.
Thermoplastic well casing that terminates above ground shall be of the type with inhibitors recommended for use in direct sunlight, be painted with a light colored acrylic or latex paint, or shall be contained in a pumphouse or in an oversized steel pipe extending from below the frost depth to the top of the thermoplastic pipe.
Thermoplastic well casing pipe shall be inspected for defects by the well driller or well constructor prior to use. Pipe with defects may not be used by a well driller or well constructor for permanent well casing pipe.
The well casing pipe shall have certification markings from the manufacturer in accordance with the ASTM F 480 specification and this section. The pipe shall be marked at least every 5 feet showing all of the following:
ASTM F 480" including year of issue of the standard with which the well casing pipe complies.
Manufacturer's code for resin manufacture, lot number, and date of manufacture.
The NSF-WC designation or other approved laboratory's seal or mark.
Assembly and installation.
Thermoplastic well casing pipe shall be assembled by the well driller or well constructor in a manner according to the specifications in ASTM F 480 using any of the following joining methods:
Temporary casing pipe for all wells and heat exchange drillholes, or well casing pipe greater than 12-inch diameter used for nonpotable wells, may be a lighter weight steel pipe than specified for a given diameter in Table B.
Drive shoes and casing shoes.
Drive shoes and casing shoes shall meet all of the following requirements:
Drive shoes shall be factory manufactured and constructed of steel or iron with a hardened, beveled cutting edge.
Drive shoes shall have an inside diameter equal to the inside diameter of the casing pipe and an outside diameter that is larger than the outside diameter of the well casing.
Casing shoes shall be factory manufactured and constructed of steel or iron with carbide studs.
Casing shoes shall have an inside diameter equal to the inside diameter of the casing wall.
Well screens shall meet all of the following requirements:
For potable low capacity wells, a continuous-slot screen composed of stainless steel, brass, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or a non-continuous slot screen approved under s. NR 812.091
shall be used.
Screen selection for driven point wells is optional, except that screens having any lead content may not be used.
For nonpotable high capacity wells, not including dewatering wells, a continuous-slot screen meeting the requirements of par. (a)
or a low carbon steel or galvanized steel, continuous-slot screen shall be used.
For nonpotable low capacity wells and dewatering wells, screens are not required; if used, screens may not have any lead content.
(12) Gravel packs.
Gravel or coarse sand to be used for a gravel pack shall be uniformly graded, well rounded, washed, and sterilized silica-based rock gravel or coarse sand, shall be free from other material, and shall comply with the requirements of AWWA A100. The size of the gravel pack shall be based on a sieve analysis of the aquifer material. The 70% retained size of the gravel pack shall be 4 to 6 times greater than the 70% retained size of the aquifer sample.
Packers used to retain grout or reduce water flow shall be made of durable, nontoxic material. Lead and burlap packers may not be used.
(14) Drilling water.
Water used in the construction, reconstruction, or redevelopment of wells shall be clear water obtained from an uncontaminated source. The water shall be disinfected with chlorine with a residual of 100 mg/L (parts per million). The chlorine concentration may be mixed according to Table D in s. NR 812.12
. The drilling fluid shall be maintained with a free-chlorine residual of 10 mg/L (parts per million) during drilling.
(15) Grouting and sealing materials.
All grouting and sealing materials shall be approved for use under s. NR 812.091
. Water used for mixing grouting or sealing material shall be clear water obtained from an uncontaminated source. When allowed in ss. NR 812.13
, a well driller or well constructor may use any of the following material to grout an annular space or fill and seal a well or borehole:
Neat cement grout shall consist of a mixture of cement and water in the following proportion: one 94-pound bag of Portland cement, ASTM C 150, Type I or API-10A, Class A; and 5 to 6 gallons of water. Ingredients, to increase fluidity, control shrinkage or time of set may be used only with a variance. Neat cement shall have a density of 15.0 to 15.8 pounds per gallon. Neat cement shall have a uniform consistency with no lumps and any commercially prepared grout shall be screened by the well driller or well constructor prior to pumping. Grout densities for neat cement mixes are provided in Table C.
Cement-bentonite grout shall consist of a mixture of powdered bentonite, cement and water and shall meet the following requirements.
Powdered bentonite may be added to the mixture described in par. (b)
up to a ratio of 5 pounds per 94-pound bag of cement.
An additional 0.65 gallons of water per bag of cement may be added to the mix.
Cement-bentonite grout shall have a minimum density of 13.8 pounds per gallon. Grout densities for cement-bentonite mixes are provided in Table C.
Sand-cement grout shall consist of a mixture of cement, sand and water in the proportion of one 94-pound bag of Portland cement, ASTM C 150, Type I or API-10A, Class A; a cubic foot of dry sand and 5 to 6 gallons of water. The sand shall meet the specifications for use in Portland cement concrete.
Concrete shall consist of a mixture of cement, water, sand, and gravel in the following proportion: one 94-pound bag of Portland cement (ASTM C 150, Type I or API-10A, Class A); an equal measure of sand and an equal measure of gravel, by weight or by volume; and not more than 6 gallons of water. As an alternative, a commercially prepared mix may be used if the mix has at least 6 bags of cement per cubic yard and the gravel size does not exceed 1/3 of the inside diameter of the tremie pipe used for filling and sealing the well or drillhole.
Sodium bentonite grout shall be a mixture of sodium bentonite and water that results in a grout containing 20 percent solids, or greater, by weight and shall be mixed according to the manufacturer's specifications.
Drilling mud and cuttings.
Drilling mud and cuttings is a mixture of native clay slurry or bentonite drilling mud mixed with drill cuttings. When allowed as an annular space seal, the mixture of drilling mud and cuttings shall have a mud weight of at least 11 pounds per gallon.
Sodium bentonite-sand grout shall consist of a mixture of sodium bentonite mixed with clean silica sand up to a ratio of a 5 to 1 mixture of clean silica sand to bentonite grout. The clean silica sand used for this mix shall consist of silica sand with 80 percent or more of the sand smaller than 0.0117 inch (passing U.S. Sieve #50) in size.
Bentonite chips shall be commercially prepared and packaged angular fragments of 85% sodium montmorillonite.
Bentonite pellets shall be a commercially prepared and packaged pelletized bentonite product that is coated to delay hydration.
Bentonite granules shall be a commercially prepared and packaged bentonite product consisting of 8 mesh pure bentonite, without additives.
Carbon-bentonite grout shall be a carbon-bentonite premix product that is mixed and used following the manufacturer's specifications. Carbon-bentonite grout shall only be used as a sealing material for heat exchange or anode drillholes.
- See PDF for table
(16) Drilling aids.
A well driller or well constructor may not use a drilling aid for well and heat exchange drillhole construction and reconstruction unless the drilling aid is approved for use under s. NR 812.091