Water starts flowing up the outside of the casing of a flowing well.
If a well driller or well constructor installs a liner to correct problems identified under this subsection, the liner shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.21
A well driller or well constructor may seal a drillhole with neat cement, sand cement grout, or concrete grout and subsequently drill through the hardened grout to reconstruct a well for non-health-related water quality problems or for turbidity problems. A well driller or well constructor shall report any well reconstructed in this manner in accordance with the requirements specified in sub. (15)
When a problem well has been identified by the department, the department may test or contract to test the well for damage or leaks by pressure testing or by a comparable testing procedure. If pressure tested,
well shall be proven watertight under a pressure of not less than 14 psi, and the pressure shall be maintained for at least 30 minutes.
(14) Notification of the need to fill and seal a well.
A well driller or well constructor who removes a well from service or constructs a replacement well on a property shall inform the property owner that the department requires that any well replaced or removed from service shall be filled and sealed according to the requirements of this section no later than 90 days after the well was removed from service or 90 days after the completion of the replacement well, whichever is later.
When required to measure well casing pipe depth by this chapter or at the request of the department, the well driller or well constructor shall enter the well details on a form specified by the department and submit the form to the well owner and the department no later than 30 days after performing the verification.
All of the following information shall be included on the form:
(16) Disinfection of equipment.
A well driller or well constructor shall disinfect any equipment used to measure or diagnose a problem in a well prior to placing the equipment in a well.
NR 812.10 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (5), (9) and (11), Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, September, 1994, No. 465
; CR 00-111
: am. (2), Register October 2001 No. 550
, eff. 11-1-01; CR 13-096
: am. (title), (1) to (8), cr. (11m), CR 13-099
: am. (2), (8), r. and recr. (11), cr. (12), (13) Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; correction in numbering in (11m) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 1., Stats., Register September 2014 No. 705
; 2015 Wis. Act 197
s. 45 Register April 2016 No. 724
; CR 18-095
: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774
, eff. 7-1-20; correction in (12) (title) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register June 2020 No. 775
; CR 21-070: cr. (13) (d) Register July 2022 No. 799, eff. 8-1-22.
NR 812.11 Well construction equipment and materials.
All materials permanently installed in a well by a well driller or well constructor shall be new, unused, and approved under s. NR 812.091
. A well driller or well constructor shall use equipment and materials that meet all of the following requirements:
The diameter of a drill bit shall be within 1/4 inch of the diameter of any drillhole to be constructed.
Tremie pipe used for the placement of grouting or sealing material shall be one of the following:
Rubber-covered hose reinforced with braided fiber or steel and rated for at least 300 psi.
Thermoplastic pipe rated for at least 160 psi including:
well driller or well constructor shall use a mud balance to measure the density of grouting or sealing materials to meet the requirements of this section.
A well driller or well constructor is prohibited from the use of lead compounds or lead components to lubricate and seal drill stem joints or any equipment that enters a well. All material permanently installed in a well by a well driller or well constructor must be lead-free as defined by the Safe Drinking Water Act.
NR 812.11 Note
Note: The Safe Drinking Water Act defines “lead-free” as a weighted average of 0.25% lead calculated across the wetted surfaces of a pipe, pipe fitting, plumbing fitting, and fixture and 0.2% lead for solder and flux.
Within any string of well casing pipe, all lengths of pipe used shall be of the same diameter.
Steel well casing pipe.
Steel well casing pipe and liner pipe shall be new, unused, and nonreclaimed pipe. The pipe shall meet ASTM or API standards and shall also meet all of the following requirements:
Except as provided in par. (b)
, well casing pipe shall have the dimensions and weights specified in Table B. Well casing pipe used in initial well construction or liner pipe used for reconstruction of a well with water containing contaminant levels in excess of the standards specified in s. NR 812.06
shall be new steel pipe meeting any of the following standards:
ASTM A 589—Type I, Grade A or B—Type II, Grade A, Type III—driven well pipe.
Nonpotable well pipe exception.
Pipe for nonpotable wells greater than 12-inch diameter shall have a minimum wall thickness of at least 0.250 inches and be able to withstand the structural stress imposed by construction conditions.
Defective pipe may not be used in water well construction. The well driller or well constructor shall inspect steel well casing pipe for defects prior to use. Defective pipe includes all of the following:
Pipe with defects, such as cracks, open welds, partial or incomplete welds, open seams, laminations in pipe wall that exceed 12.5% of wall thickness, or slivers that exceed 12.5% of wall thickness.
Pipe with coatings containing contaminants on the inside of the pipe.
Any length of pipe composed of multiple pieces that is not straight and squarely aligned, or is incorrectly mated and welded in accordance with the requirements specified in par. (f)
Each length of well casing pipe 2 inches or larger in diameter shall meet the requirements in Table B and shall be legibly marked in conformance with the ASTM or API marking specifications including color identification in the form of bands. Except as identified in this paragraph, each length of pipe shall show all of the following:
Whether seamless or welded and type of weld and the heat number.
When the department determines that the water well casing pipe or the pipe markings are of questionable condition, the department may request that the well driller or well constructor provide the mill certification papers obtained directly from the manufacturer that list the pipe specifications and match the heat numbers on the pipe.
Assembly and installation.
A well driller or well constructor shall assemble and install steel well casing in accordance with all of the following:
When steel well casing pipe is driven or installed it shall be accomplished in a manner such that damage to the well casing pipe does not result.
Steel well casing pipe shall be assembled watertight by correctly mated, recessed type couplings having the weights and diameters as listed in Table B or by means of welded joints.
Two-inch diameter or smaller well casing pipe couplings shall have at least 11-1/2 threads per inch. Larger diameter couplings shall have at least 8 threads per inch.
Steel well casing pipe to be assembled with welded joints shall have beveled ends and the bevels shall be properly aligned and clean and free of burs prior to welding. The casing shall be welded using the procedures of s. NR 812.18
and the weld shall fill the bevel.
- See PDF for table
Thermoplastic well casing pipe.
Thermoplastic well casing pipe and couplings used in the construction of wells shall be new and unused and shall meet all of the following requirements:
Thermoplastic well casing pipe and couplings shall be polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) material produced to and meeting the ASTM F480 specification as well as all of the following requirements:
Styrene-rubber thermoplastic well casing pipe, including ASTM F 480 may not be used.
Thermoplastic well casing shall have a standard dimension ratio of 21, 17, or 13.5.
Well casing pipe, pipe couplings, cement, primer, and other components used shall meet the requirements of NSF Standard 14 as it relates to well casing pipe, or an approved equivalent organization.
Thermoplastic well casing that terminates above ground shall be of the type with inhibitors recommended for use in direct sunlight, be painted with a light colored acrylic or latex paint, or shall be contained in a pumphouse or in an oversized steel pipe extending from below the frost depth to the top of the thermoplastic pipe.
Thermoplastic well casing pipe shall be inspected for defects by the well driller or well constructor prior to use. Pipe with defects may not be used by a well driller or well constructor for permanent well casing pipe.
The well casing pipe shall have certification markings from the manufacturer in accordance with the ASTM F 480 specification and this section. The pipe shall be marked at least every 5 feet showing all of the following:
ASTM F 480" including year of issue of the standard with which the well casing pipe complies.
Manufacturer's code for resin manufacture, lot number, and date of manufacture.
The NSF-WC designation or other approved laboratory's seal or mark.
Assembly and installation.
Thermoplastic well casing pipe shall be assembled by the well driller or well constructor in a manner according to the specifications in ASTM F 480 using any of the following joining methods:
Temporary casing pipe for all wells and heat exchange drillholes, or well casing pipe greater than 12-inch diameter used for nonpotable wells, may be a lighter weight steel pipe than specified for a given diameter in Table B.
Drive shoes and casing shoes.
Drive shoes and casing shoes shall meet all of the following requirements:
Drive shoes shall be factory manufactured and constructed of steel or iron with a hardened, beveled cutting edge.
Drive shoes shall have an inside diameter equal to the inside diameter of the casing pipe and an outside diameter that is larger than the outside diameter of the well casing.
Casing shoes shall be factory manufactured and constructed of steel or iron with carbide studs.
Casing shoes shall have an inside diameter equal to the inside diameter of the casing wall.