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NR 811.57(2)(m) (m) Water from ion exchange treatment plants shall be stabilized as required in s. NR 811.58 (4), except where it can be shown that the treated water will be non-corrosive.
NR 811.57 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.58 NR 811.58 Stabilization. Water that is unstable to the extent of causing corrosion or deposition problems in the distribution system, whether a result of natural causes or water treatment processes, shall be stabilized. The following standards shall apply:
NR 811.58(1) (1)Carbon dioxide addition.
NR 811.58(1)(a)(a) Recarbonation chamber design shall provide:
NR 811.58(1)(a)1. 1. A total detention time of 20 minutes or as approved by the department.
NR 811.58(1)(a)2. 2. Two compartments, with a depth that will provide a diffuser submergence not less than 7.5 feet nor greater than recommended by the manufacturer and as follows:
NR 811.58(1)(a)2.a. a. A mixing compartment having a detention time of at least 3 minutes.
NR 811.58(1)(a)2.b. b. A reaction compartment.
NR 811.58(1)(b) (b) The design shall prevent carbon dioxide from entering the plant from the recarbonation and reaction chamber.
NR 811.58(1)(c) (c) Plants generating carbon dioxide from combustion shall have open top recarbonation tanks in order to dissipate carbon monoxide gas.
NR 811.58(1)(d) (d) Provisions shall be made for draining the recarbonation basin and removing sludge.
NR 811.58(1)(e) (e) Recarbonation tanks shall be located outside or sealed and vented to the outside.
NR 811.58(2) (2)Phosphates. Phosphates may be used for sequestering calcium in lime softened water, corrosion control and in conjunction with alkali feed following ion exchange softening. When used:
NR 811.58(2)(a) (a) Feed equipment shall conform to requirements in ss. NR 811.38 to 811.40.
NR 811.58(2)(b) (b) Phosphate chemicals shall meet the NSF/ANSI Standard 60 requirements.
NR 811.58(2)(c) (c) Stock phosphate solution shall be kept covered and disinfected by carrying an approximate 10 mg/1 chlorine residual. The department may exempt phosphate solutions having a pH of 2.0 or less from this requirement.
NR 811.58(2)(d) (d) Facilities shall be designed to maintain satisfactory chlorine residuals as indicated in s. NR 810.09 (2) and (3).
NR 811.58(2)(e) (e) The total phosphate applied may not exceed 10 mg/1 as PO4.
NR 811.58(3) (3)Split treatment. If approved by the department, a lime-soda water treatment plant may be designed using `split treatment' in which raw water is blended with lime-treated water to partially stabilize the water. Treatment plants designed to utilize `split treatment' shall contain facilities for further stabilization by other methods.
NR 811.58(4) (4)Alkali feed. An alkali feeder shall be provided for all ion exchange water softening plants to provide stable water unless the effluent water is shown to be non-corrosive. Other waters may also be corrosive and require pH adjustment. The chemical shall be adequately mixed and the point of application located such that any deposition in the piping is minimized. The piping shall be accessible for cleaning or replacement. Equipment for monitoring pH shall be provided.
NR 811.58(5) (5)Carbon dioxide reduction by aeration. The carbon dioxide content of an aggressive water may be reduced by aeration. Aeration devices shall conform to s. NR 811.45.
NR 811.58(6) (6)Other treatment. Other treatment for controlling corrosive waters by the use of sodium silicate and sodium bicarbonate may be used where necessary. Any proprietary compound shall receive the specific approval of the department before use. Chemical feeders shall comply with the requirements in subch. VI.
NR 811.58(7) (7)Control. Laboratory equipment shall be provided for determining the effectiveness of stabilization treatment.
NR 811.58 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.59 NR 811.59 Taste and odor control. Waterworks which are designed and constructed to provide taste and odor control shall comply with any requirements provided for the following applicable methods:
NR 811.59(1) (1)Chlorination. Chlorination is effective for the removal of some objectionable odors. Adequate concentration and contact time shall be provided to complete the chemical reactions involved. Excessive potential trihalomethane or other disinfection by-product production through this process shall be investigated by bench-scale testing prior to design.
NR 811.59(2) (2)Chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide may be used in the treatment of any taste or odor which is treatable by an oxidizing compound. Provision shall be made for proper storage and handling of sodium chlorite to eliminate any danger of explosion.
NR 811.59(3) (3)Powdered activated carbon.
NR 811.59(3)(a)(a) Powdered activated carbon may be added prior to coagulation to provide maximum contact time. Although facilities to allow the addition at several alternate points is recommended, in no case may carbon be added near the point of chlorine application.
NR 811.59(3)(b) (b) The carbon shall be added as a premixed slurry or by means of a dry-feed machine if the carbon is properly `wetted'.
NR 811.59(3)(c) (c) Continuous agitation or resuspension equipment shall be provided to keep the carbon from depositing in the mixing chamber/slurry storage tank.
NR 811.59(3)(d) (d) Dust control shall be provided.
NR 811.59(3)(e) (e) The required dosage of carbon in a water treatment plant depends upon the tastes and odors involved. Provisions shall be made for adding sufficient amounts to meet peak demands.
NR 811.59(3)(f) (f) Powdered activated carbon shall be handled as a potentially combustible material. It shall be stored in a building or compartment as nearly fireproof as possible. Other chemicals may not be stored in the same compartment. A separate room shall be provided for carbon feed installations. Carbon feeder rooms shall be equipped with explosion-proof electrical outlets, lights, and motors.
NR 811.59(4) (4)Granular activated carbon. The requirements for granulated activated carbon are in s. NR 811.49.
NR 811.59(5) (5)Copper sulphate and other copper compounds. Continuous or periodic treatment of water with copper compounds to kill algae or other growths shall be controlled to prevent a level in excess of 1.0 mg/l as copper in the plant effluent or distribution system. Provisions shall be made for uniform distribution of the chemical.
NR 811.59(6) (6)Aeration. The requirements for aeration are in s. NR 811.45.
NR 811.59(7) (7)Potassium permanganate. The department may approve application of potassium permanganate if the treatment will be controlled to insure that no residual color will be present in the finished water.
NR 811.59(8) (8)Ozone. Ozonation may be used as a means of taste and odor control. Adequate contact time shall be provided to complete the chemical reactions involved. Ozone is generally more desirable for treating water with high threshold odors. Requirements for ozonation are contained in s. NR 811.54.
NR 811.59(9) (9)Other methods. Any other methods of taste and odor control may be allowed by the department only after laboratory or pilot plant tests or both.
NR 811.59(10) (10)Flexibility. Plants treating water known to have taste and odor problems shall be provided with equipment and multiple chemical addition points to provide several alternative control processes.
NR 811.59 Note Note: Refer to subch. VI, for requirements for the storage, handling and application of chemicals in treating surface waters.
NR 811.59 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.60 NR 811.60 Ultraviolet (UV) Light. Ultraviolet (UV) light technology is a primary disinfectant typically used for Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia inactivation of both surface water and groundwater supplies. The USEPA Ultraviolet Light Disinfection Guidance Manual (USEPA UVDGM) shall be used as the basis for the validation, design and operation of all UV systems. Water systems which are designed to provide ultraviolet light disinfection shall comply with the following:
NR 811.60(1) (1)Treatment objectives. The target pathogen and the target log inactivation shall be used to identify the corresponding required UV dose.
NR 811.60(2) (2)Water quality considerations and pretreatment. In order to provide adequate disinfection treatment, some water sources may need treatment prior to ultraviolet light disinfection. UV disinfection of surface water sources shall follow filtration. Department approval for specific pretreatment requirements is required if any of the parameters in Table No. 3 are exceeded in the water to be treated by ultraviolet light. - See PDF for table PDF
NR 811.60(3) (3)Validation. Ultraviolet light treatment devices shall be validated by a third party entity in accordance with the USEPA Ultraviolet Light Disinfection Guidance Manual (USEPA UVDGM) or another validation standard as approved by the department.
NR 811.60(4) (4)Materials. The ultraviolet light housing shall be type 304 or type 316L stainless steel.
NR 811.60(5) (5)Design.
NR 811.60(5)(a)(a) The ultraviolet treatment device shall be designed to provide a UV light dose of a minimum of 40 millijoules per square centimeter (mJ/cm2) and shall also deliver the target dose as prescribed by s. NR 810.62 by operating within the validated operating conditions for that particular unit.
NR 811.60(5)(b) (b) The ultraviolet treatment assemblies shall be designed to allow visual observation, cleaning, and replacement of the lamp, lamp sleeves, and sensor window or lens.
NR 811.60(5)(c) (c) All ultraviolet lamps shall be housed in quartz sleeves.
NR 811.60(5)(d) (d) Where in-situ cleaning of the lamp sleeves is proposed, the design shall protect the potable water from cleaning solutions.
NR 811.60(5)(d)1. 1. When off-line chemical cleaning systems are used, the UV enclosure shall be removed from service, drained, flushed with an NSF/ANSI Standard 60 certified solution, drained, and rinsed before being placed back in service.
NR 811.60(5)(d)2. 2. On-line systems that use wipers or brushes may use chemical solutions provided they are NSF/ANSI Standard 60 certified.
NR 811.60(5)(e) (e) An automatic shutdown valve shall be installed in the water supply line prior to the ultraviolet treatment device. When power is not provided the valve shall be in the closed position.
NR 811.60(5)(f) (f) The inlet and outlet piping to the reactors shall assure that the UV dose delivery is equal to or greater than the UV dose delivered during validation.
NR 811.60(5)(g) (g) The flow to each reactor shall be equally distributed and metered.
NR 811.60(5)(h) (h) Valves shall be provided to allow isolating and removing from service each UV reactor.
NR 811.60(5)(i) (i) Reactors shall be provided with air relief and pressure control valves per manufacturer requirements.
NR 811.60(5)(j) (j) UV transmittance (UVT) analyzers shall be provided if UVT is part of the dose monitoring strategy.
NR 811.60(5)(k) (k) Sample taps shall be provided downstream of each reactor.
NR 811.60(6) (6)Controls.
NR 811.60(6)(a)(a) A delay mechanism shall be installed to provide sufficient lamp warm-up prior to allowing water to flow from the ultraviolet treatment unit.
NR 811.60(6)(b) (b) An automatic shutdown shall be designed to activate the shutdown valve in cases where the ultraviolet light dose falls below the approved design dose or outside of the validated specifications.
NR 811.60(6)(c) (c) Where the UV is necessary to provide adequate disinfection, 99.9 percent of the volume of water passing through the reactors shall receive UV light treatment within the validated specifications. This may require the use of a bleed line from the reactors during lamp warm up and cool down periods.
NR 811.60(7) (7)Back-up. A sufficient number of parallel ultraviolet treatment devices shall be installed to insure that adequate disinfection is provided when one unit is out of service. The department may approve an alternate method that provides adequate disinfection.
NR 811.60(8) (8)Treatment bypass. No bypass of the ultraviolet treatment process may be installed unless an alternate method of providing adequate disinfection is provided.
NR 811.60(9) (9)Monitoring. Continuous monitoring of UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, flow rate, and lamp status shall be provided for each ultraviolet treatment device to demonstrate that the device is operating within the range of conditions for which it was validated for the required UV dose. Each monitoring device shall be connected to the control system for the shutdown valve for the respective ultraviolet treatment device. The department may require additional monitoring devices and control systems if any of the water quality characteristics listed in Table No. 3 are representative of the water to be treated and may impair the effectiveness of the ultraviolet light treatment.
NR 811.60(10) (10)Chlorine addition. Unless waived by the department, chlorine shall be added after UV for virus inactivation and to provide a residual in the distribution system.
NR 811.60(11) (11)Pilot testing. Pilot testing is generally not required unless factors such as fouling or aging cannot be predicted by bench-scale testing.
NR 811.60 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
subch. VIII of ch. NR 811 Subchapter VIII — Hydro-Pneumatic Tanks
NR 811.61 NR 811.61 General. The department may approve the use of hydro-pneumatic, or pressure, tanks, as provided in s. NR 811.62 (2). All of the following requirements shall be met:
NR 811.61(1) (1) The tanks shall be completely housed, or earth-mounded with one end projecting into an operating house, to prevent freezing. A tank may be installed below grade if one end is exposed in a basement, vault or manhole. If the tank is installed below grade, all electrical controls and air release valves and any other appurtenances which may permit contamination of the water supply shall be extended to at least 24 inches above grade. Air release piping extended above grade shall be terminated in a down-turned U-bend screened with a 24-mesh corrosion resistant screen. The basement, vault or manhole shall be constructed to prevent surface water from entering including sealing any annular spaces where pipes and appurtenances pass through a wall, floor or ceiling. The basement, vault or manhole shall be equipped with heating, ventilation and dehumidification equipment if necessary to prevent excessive corrosion of the pressure tank and associated piping or to prevent water from freezing. Access manholes shall terminate a minimum of 24 inches above grade with an overlapping, locking cover. Vent pipes shall be metal and terminate a minimum of 24 inches above grade in a downward facing U-bend screened with a 24-mesh corrosion resistant screen. Doors shall open outward and be provided with a lock.
NR 811.61(2) (2) Each tank shall be provided with bypass piping and the necessary shut-off valves to permit operation of the system while the tank is being repaired or painted. For galvanized or bladder type pressure tanks, the individual connecting pipe to each tank shall be provided with a shut-off valve, pipe union and drain fitting. Threaded drain fittings shall be provided with a vacuum breaker.
NR 811.61(3) (3) Each tank not equipped with a bladder or diaphragm to separate the air and water and with a gross volume of 500 gallons or more shall have a drain fitting with shut-off valve and control equipment consisting of a pressure gauge, a pressure relief valve, a water sight glass, an automatic air blow-off, and pressure or probe operated start-stop controls for the pumps.
NR 811.61(4) (4) Each tank not equipped with a bladder or diaphragm to separate the air and water and with a gross volume of 500 gallons or more or that will be painted inside shall be provided with an access manhole. If the tank interior is to be painted it shall be painted with NSF/ANSI approved paints in accordance with s. NR 810.09 (5).
NR 811.61(5) (5) Each tank not equipped with a bladder or diaphragm to separate the air and water and with a gross volume of 500 gallons or more shall be provided with an automatically controlled air compressor to add air to the tank. All compressors used to routinely add air to tanks shall be oil-less. Larger capacity compressors that are not oil-less may be used temporarily to fill a tank upon startup, repair or service but shall be fitted with one or more filters and any other appurtenances necessary to remove particulates and oil from the air prior to injection.
NR 811.61(6) (6) Each tank equipped with a diaphragm or bladder shall be equipped with an air inlet for adding air manually, a pressure relief valve for each tank or bank of tanks sized to handle the maximum flow rate, and pressure-operated start up and shut down controls for the well pump.
NR 811.61(7) (7) The gross volume, in gallons, of any tank or combination of tanks, shall be at least 10 times the capacity of the largest pump, rated in gallons per minute, unless the proposed pump motor or motors will be controlled by a variable output control device in a manner intended to reduce the volume of required pressure tank storage in accordance with s. NR 811.34 (6). For a standard installation, the required storage volume is intended to provide a minimum pump run time of 2 to 3 minutes.
NR 811.61(8) (8) Each tank shall be identified by stamping or labeling showing the manufacturer's name, a serial number, the tank volume, the allowable working pressure, and the year fabricated.
NR 811.61(9) (9) Each tank not equipped with a bladder or diaphragm to separate the air and water and with a gross volume of 500 gallons or more shall be constructed of steel and have a 0.25 inch minimum side wall and head wall thickness.
NR 811.61 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
subch. IX of ch. NR 811 Subchapter IX — Storage Facilities
NR 811.62 NR 811.62 Volume and pressure.
NR 811.62(1) (1) Volume requirements. A sufficient quantity of water, as determined from engineering studies, shall be maintained in elevated storage when only one pumping unit to the distribution system is available to serve the water system. This shall be at least an average-day supply under normal operating conditions. When more than one distribution pump is available, the storage shall be in accordance with standard engineering practice. Standard engineering practice is based upon an engineering review of existing and future water supply needs including: type of service and population served; average day, maximum day, peak hour and fire flow demands and durations; water source quality, availability and treatment, pump capacities, auxiliary power, storage capacity, water distribution and costs.
NR 811.62(2) (2)Pressure requirements. Storage facilities shall be designed to meet all the following requirements:
Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.