Formation samples shall be collected from all new test wells and final wells and from deepening of existing wells at 5-foot intervals and at each pronounced change in geologic formation. The formation samples shall be submitted to the Wisconsin State Geological and Natural History Survey, 3817 Mineral Point Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, in collection bags provided by the survey or in equivalent plastic bags. The formation depths sampled shall be clearly and permanently marked on each bag.
Geological data shall be recorded on the completed Well Construction Report form submitted to the department.
Wells in which no pump is installed shall be capped by welding a steel plate to the top of the casing to form a watertight and airtight seal.
During construction, a temporary means of capping or covering the well shall be provided to prevent debris or any contaminants from entering the well or any annular space.
(19) Bacteriological quality.
Every new, modified, or reconditioned groundwater source shall be disinfected during or after installation of the pumping equipment. Representative samples for bacteriological analysis shall be collected as required in s. NR 810.09 (4)
(20) Chemical quality.
Every new well shall be sampled for chemical quality. Reconditioned or reconstructed wells shall be sampled for chemical quality in cases where changes in water quality may occur. The samples shall be representative of the well water and collected and analyzed for the parameters indicated in the department's approval letter for the well construction, reconditioning or reconstruction. The samples shall be collected near the end of the test pumping period after the well construction, reconditioning, or reconstruction has been completed and where applicable, the well developed. Where not existing, a smooth end sampling faucet shall be installed on the test pump discharge piping at a location suitable for the collection of water samples for volatile parameters and a suitable throttling device shall be provided on the pump discharge piping to facilitate sample collection. The samples shall be submitted to a laboratory certified by the state of Wisconsin. Prior to collection of the samples, the department shall be provided with a detailed description of the sampling protocol for each parameter. Wells that do not meet the primary drinking water standards of ch. NR 809
may not be placed into service unless adequate treatment is provided in accordance with. s. NR 811.04
Observation wells, monitoring wells, test wells, treatment wells or other wells constructed as part of the water system shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter for permanent community wells if they are to remain in service after completion of construction of the community well and if they are located on the well site. When taken out of service these wells shall be abandoned in accordance with s. NR 811.13
. Temporary or permanent observation wells, monitoring wells, test wells, treatment wells, or other wells constructed off the well site shall meet the construction and abandonment requirements of ch. NR 141
, or this chapter.
The wells shall be protected and secured at the upper terminal to preclude entrance of foreign material and minimize the potential for vandalism. The wells to remain in service shall be provided with locking covers.
Specifications documenting the methods and materials for the temporary abandonment of test wells or test borings to be converted into final wells shall be submitted to the department for review and approval.
NR 811.12 History
History: CR 09-073
: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659
, eff. 12-1-10; correction in (5) (d) 1., 4., 5., 7., 9., (11) (a) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6.
, Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; corrections in (5) (d) 1., 4., 5., 7., 9. made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7.
, Stats., Register October 2013 No. 694
Criteria for abandonment.
The owner shall permanently abandon all unused permanent wells, test wells, and monitoring wells for permanent wells or test wells unless the department agrees to the delayed abandonment of the well as part of an extended well abandonment agreement. Wells shall be abandoned in accordance with the following criteria:
Test wells and monitoring wells constructed as part of the test well or permanent well construction and test pumping evaluation processes shall be permanently abandoned prior to placing the permanent well in service unless the department approves the wells to remain in service in accordance with the requirements of s. NR 811.12 (21)
Permanent wells with one or more water quality parameters exceeding a primary drinking water standard contained in ch. NR 809
shall be permanently abandoned unless department approval is obtained to continue the well in service and only if department approved water treatment is installed to provide point-of-entry water quality compliance or an extended well abandonment agreement is obtained from the department in conformance with s. NR 810.22
. The department shall be contacted and written department approval shall be obtained for the abandonment of contaminated wells where the department deems it necessary to require more stringent abandonment requirements in order to protect lower aquifers from additional contamination.
The department may allow existing permanent wells that are not constructed in accordance with the minimum requirements of this chapter to remain in service if the well water quality continues to meet all of the primary drinking water standards contained in ch. NR 809
or if department-approved water treatment is installed to provide point-of-entry water quality compliance. All ungrouted municipal wells shall be immediately reconstructed by grouting in a liner casing to a depth approved by the department or the well shall be taken out of service and permanently abandoned.
(2) Qualifications of persons abandoning wells.
All wells shall be permanently abandoned by persons who meet the following qualifications:
For wells located within a municipal water system, the person shall be a licensed well driller, a licensed pump installer, a water system operator certified under s. 281.17 (3)
, Stats., working for the municipal water system, or a person under the supervision of a licensed well driller, licensed pump installer, or a water system operator certified under s. 281.17 (3)
, Stats., working for the municipal water system.
For wells not located within a municipal water system, the person shall be a licensed well driller, a licensed pump installer or a person under the supervision of a licensed well driller or licensed pump installer.
(3) Temporary abandonment.
When a well is temporarily removed from service, the top of the well casing shall be sealed with a watertight threaded or welded cap. The well shall be permanently abandoned no later than 5 years after the well is temporarily abandoned. The department may enter into a written extended well abandonment agreement with the well owner in accordance with s. NR 810.22
to allow an unused or standby well to remain operational for more than 5 years after the well is temporarily abandoned.
All debris, pumps, piping, ungrouted liner pipe that can be removed, inner ungrouted casings and well screens, and any other obstruction known to be in the well shall be removed if possible before the well is permanently abandoned.
Well casing pipe may be removed from a well to be abandoned if the end of the pipe remains in the well sealing material as the pipe is pulled from the well.
Wells that have uncertain construction details shall be televised prior to abandonment if required by the department to allow for a proper well abandonment.
All casings and liner pipes located within ungrouted annular spaces and that cannot be removed from a well prior to abandonment shall either be shot or ripped in place prior to abandonment of the well. The following minimum requirements shall be met:
The casing shall either be perforated using projectiles fired perpendicular and completely through the casing or liner pipe or shall be vertically ripped.
Each shot shall be a minimum of 0.4 inches in diameter. Each rip shall have a minimum width of 0.25 inches and a minimum length of 12 inches.
The portion of the well with a casing or liner pipe to be shot or ripped shall be completely filled inside and outside by pressure grouting with neat cement from the inside out and from the bottom up in accordance with s. NR 811.12 (14)
(5) Abandonment materials and limitations.
All wells shall be abandoned using the following materials:
Neat cement grout, sand-cement grout, or concrete meeting the specifications in s. NR 811.12 (14) (a)
. Powdered bentonite shall not be added to neat cement grout.
Department approved slow-hydrating bentonite chips with the following limitations:
The depth of standing water in the well shall not exceed 350 feet.
Fine particles and dust contained in the bags of bentonite chips shall be prevented from entering the well by allowing the chips to tumble under their own weight down a coarse mesh screen into the well. The chips shall be poured across the screen and into the well at a rate not to exceed emptying the bag in 3 minutes.
The depth of chips shall be monitored a minimum of once every calculated 50 feet to monitor for bridging of chips. Any chip bridges shall be removed.
Water from a clean, known bacteriologically safe source shall be poured down the well on a continuous basis as the chips are being introduced into the well in order to hydrate all of the chips. Water shall be continuously introduced until the water level rises to the top of the well casing and stays there.
Pea gravel that is round, washed to be free of sand and other fine materials, disinfected and having a maximum diameter of 0.375 inches, may be poured into a well without the use of a conductor pipe if the well is sounded at 50-foot intervals to ensure that bridging of the gravel does not occur.
(6) General abandonment requirements.
Abandonment methods shall meet the following requirements:
All wells shall be filled from the bottom of the well up to the ground surface using approved materials unless it is necessary to terminate the abandonment below the ground surface to accommodate construction over the well. Well casings and abandonment materials may be terminated as much as 3 feet below the ground surface or to a depth below any future building foundation to accommodate construction over the well.
The bottom end of the conductor pipe shall be submerged in the sealing material at all times.
Sealing materials shall be placed by use of a conductor pipe or by means of a dump bailer except when approved bentonite chips or pea gravel are used. Bentonite chips may be poured into the well in accordance with sub. (5) (b)
. Pea gravel may be poured into the well in accordance with sub. (5) (c)
. Conductor piping used for pressure methods shall meet the requirements of s. NR 811.12 (14) (b) 8.
for well grouting. Conductor piping for non-pressure methods shall be one of the following:
Rubber-covered hose reinforced with braided fiber or steel and rated at least 300 psi.
For use at depths less than 100 feet, thermoplastic pipe rated for at least 100 psi, including any of the following:
(7) Special abandonment requirements.
To permanently abandon a well, the owner shall have a person who meets the qualifications of sub. (2)
fill and seal the well to prevent it from acting as a channel for the vertical movement of contamination or groundwater, by the following applicable method:
(a) Monitoring wells.
Monitoring wells constructed to ch. NR 141
requirements shall be permanently abandoned in accordance with ch. NR 141
(b) Flowing wells.
For flowing wells, the flow shall be confined and the well shall be filled in accordance with par. (c)
, or (e)
or sealed in accordance with sub. (6)
using neat cement grout applied by a pressure method.
(c) Drift or other unconsolidated wells.
For drift or other unconsolidated wells, the well shall be completely filled from the bottom up with concrete, sand cement grout, neat cement, or approved slow-hydrating bentonite chips. Sealing materials shall meet the requirements of sub. (5)
. An attempt shall be made to remove any inner ungrouted well casings and screens from gravel-pack wells prior to filling. If the well casings and screens cannot be removed, an attempt shall be made to remove as much gravel pack as possible using air or water or both jetting techniques and the interior and exterior of the ungrouted casings and screens shall then be sealed from the bottom up in accordance with sub. (6)
using neat cement applied by a pressure method.
(d) Bedrock formation wells.
Wells completed in bedrock formations shall be completely filled from the bottom up with concrete, sand-cement, neat cement, or approved slow-hydrating bentonite chips. Sealing materials shall meet the requirements of sub. (5)
. As an alternative for uncontaminated bedrock wells deeper than 250 feet or for wells cased and grouted through the Maquoketa Shale formation, chlorinated, sand-free pea gravel may be used to fill the open drillhole from the bottom of the well up to the 250-foot depth or to a depth 20 feet below the bottom of the protective casing, whichever is deeper. Additionally, minimum 40-foot thick plugs of sealing materials meeting the requirements of sub. (5)
shall be centered at the top of the uppermost Cambrian Sandstone formation and at the top of the Eau Claire formation where these formations are open in the drillhole. The department shall be contacted for specific abandonment requirements where the top or the bottom of the Maquoketa Shale formation is exposed in the open drillhole.
(e) Dug and bored wells.
The cover and the top curbing or concrete wall shall be removed to a depth of 5 feet below grade for dug or bored wells. Concrete or rock curbing materials may be caved into the drillhole as the well is being sealed only if performed in a manner to prevent bridging.
If constructed in unconsolidated formations, the well shall be filled from the bottom up using clean clay or silt, clean native soil, concrete, sand-cement, neat cement, or approved slow-hydrating bentonite chips or a combination of the above. Sealing materials shall meet the requirements of sub. (5)
If constructed partially or completely into bedrock, the well shall be filled from the bottom up to the ground surface with concrete, sand-cement, neat cement, approved slow-hydrating bentonite chips or a combination of the above except that if bedrock is encountered below the ground surface, these materials shall be placed to a point at least 2 feet above the top of the bedrock. The remainder of the well may be abandoned with any of the materials listed in subd. 1.
Sealing materials shall meet the requirements of sub. (5)
Dug or bored wells 18 inches in diameter and smaller shall be filled by means of a conductor pipe, or tremie pipe, except when slow-hydrating bentonite chips are used as specified in sub. (5) (b)
or when clean clay or silt or clean native soil is used and the dug or bored well is 25 feet deep or less.
(8) Abandonment reports.
The person who abandoned the well shall file an abandonment report with the department, on forms provided by the department, within 30 days after the completion of the well abandonment. The report shall be completely filled out in accordance with the information known and shall include complete information on the depths and types of sealing materials used. Well drillers and pump installers shall report to the department any unused or unabandoned wells on the property of which they have knowledge.
NR 811.13 History
History: CR 09-073
: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659
, eff. 12-1-10.
Special requirements for wells developed in unconsolidated formations. NR 811.14(1)
Cased and grouted depth.
The cased and grouted depth for screened wells in unconsolidated formations shall be dependent on the controlling geologic conditions. Where practical, the grouted casing shall extend to at least 5 feet below the normal pumping water level and to within 5 feet of the top of the screen unless the grout depth is at least 60 feet.
Additional treatment shall be provided for wells with less than 60 feet of grouted well casing.
Continuous disinfection shall be provided for wells with less than 60 feet of grouted well casing.
Additional detention time and treatment shall be provided when the department determines that additional protection is necessary.
(3) Casing and grouting through clay or hardpan.
If clay or hardpan is encountered above the formation to be developed, the protective casing and grout shall extend through the materials, but any outer casing shall be withdrawn at least 5 feet above the clay or hardpan during grouting.
(4) Gravel pack.
If the well is gravel packed, the gravel shall be acid resistant and free of foreign material, properly sized, washed and disinfected prior to or during placement.
(5) Grout seal.
A sand or bentonite seal to prevent leakage of grout into the gravel pack or screen shall be provided. The seal shall be no more than 2 feet thick.
(6) Gravel refill and observation pipes.
Gravel refill pipes and observation pipes, when used, shall be surrounded by a minimum of 1.5 inches of grout if installed in the grouted annular opening. Observation pipes installed between the inner and the protective casing may be plastic. Pipes shall be incorporated into the concrete pump foundation to a point at least 4 inches above the floor, and shall terminate with a threaded cap at least 12 inches above the pumphouse floor.
NR 811.14 History
History: CR 09-073
: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659
, eff. 12-1-10.
Special requirements for collector wells. NR 811.15(1)(1)
Continuous disinfection and adequate detention time shall be provided for radial collectors.
Department approval of the well site shall be obtained in accordance with s. NR 811.09 (4) (j) 1.
prior to conducting any intensive investigation at the well site.
The area around the collector laterals shall be under the control of the supplier of water for a distance approved by the department.
The location of all caisson construction joints and porthole assemblies shall be indicated on the plans.
The caisson wall shall be constructed of reinforced concrete as provided in s. NR 811.12 (8)
. An approved water stop shall be installed between each lift. A final water stop or gasket shall be installed between the base of the pumphouse floor and the top of the caisson. All water used in the construction of the collector shall be from a known bacteriologically safe and uncontaminated source.
Provisions shall be made to assure minimum vertical rise of the caisson due to potential buoyancy concerns.
The top of the caisson shall be covered with a watertight concrete floor, and all openings in the floor shall be curbed and have overlapping covers to protect against the entrance of foreign material. The caisson shall be vented through a vent pipe installed through the floor in accordance with the requirements of s. NR 811.64 (8)
Pump discharge pipes may not be placed through caisson walls.
Pumphouses constructed on top of the caisson shall meet the construction requirements of subchs. IV
. The floor of any pumphouse shall be supported by concrete walls that have frost footings.
NR 811.15 History
History: CR 09-073
: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659
, eff. 12-1-10.
Special requirements for dug wells and springs. NR 811.16(1)(1)
The department may approve dug wells and springs only when it is not feasible to develop a drilled well.