(13) Other methods of well reconditioning.
Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to performing any other type of reconditioning procedure, including hydrofracturing and impulse generation techniques. The requester shall submit written information regarding the procedure, the equipment, materials, chemicals and pressures to be used, and the disposal of waste to the department for approval.
Hydrofracturing procedures shall meet the following requirements:
The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the proposed hydrofracturing work.
Hydrofracturing shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed well driller.
Clean washed inert, nontoxic material such as sand may be added to the water for the purpose of holding the joints and fractures open after the pressure is reduced.
When a well is to be hydrofractured within 100 feet of any existing bedrock well, the well driller shall notify the existing well owner or owners and the department's regional drinking water staff person of the forthcoming hydrofracturing operation at least 48 hours prior to the commencement of the hydrofracturing operation.
The upper packer may not be placed at a depth closer than 20 feet below the bottom of the casing.
Following the completion of the hydrofracturing procedure, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected, pumped to waste, and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4)
The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the hydrofracturing and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after the hydrofracturing, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been hydrofractured, if applicable.
(b) Impulse generation.
Impulse generation procedures shall meet the following requirements:
The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the impulse generation work.
Impulse generation procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed well driller.
A report shall be submitted to the department that identifies the impulse method to be used, the means of generating the impulse, the number of passes, the depths in the open drillhole or well screen that the procedure will be started and stopped, the psi strength of each impulse, and the number of impulses per foot. The report shall also include information on all the gases to be used and details of any chemical addition to be performed along with the impulse generation procedures, including the chemicals to be used, the reason for using the chemicals, the strength of each chemical as applied, the means to be used to inject the chemicals, and how the chemicals will be neutralized and disposed of. All chemicals used shall have NSF/ANSI Standard 60 approved for use in potable water as required per s. NR 810.09 (1) (c)
Impulse strength shall be maintained low enough to prevent structural damage to well casings, grout, and screens.
Following the completion of the impulse generation work, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected, pumped to waste, and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4)
The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the impulse generation and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after the impulse generation, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been treated with impulse generation, if applicable.
Neat cement grout shall be ASTM C150, Type I or API-10A, Class A Portland cement and water from a known bacteriologically safe and uncontaminated source with not more than 6 gallons of water per sack (94 lbs.) of cement. A mud balance shall be used to measure the grout density. Additives, including bentonite, to increase fluidity, reduce shrinkage or control time of set may be used only with prior department approval. No more than 4.7 pounds of powdered bentonite, a maximum of 5%, may be added to each 94-pound sack of cement. When bentonite is added, the volume of water shall be increased. When bentonite is added, a pressurized mud balance shall be used to measure the grout density. Bentonite mixed with neat cement grout shall comply with Table No. 2.
- See PDF for table
(Bentonite table information provided by the Halliburton Co.)
Sand cement grout may be used for annular openings greater than 3 inches. The mixture may not exceed 2 parts by weight of sand to one part of ASTM C150, Type 1 or API-10A, Class A Portland cement and not more than 6 gallons of water from a known bacteriologically safe and uncontaminated source to each 94-pound sack of cement.
Concrete grout may be used for annular openings greater than 6 inches. The concrete shall contain not less than 6 sacks of cement per cubic yard and not more than 6 gallons of water from a known bacteriologically safe uncontaminated source to each 94-pound sack of cement. The gravel size may not exceed 0.75
inch. The volumetric ratio of either gravel or sand to cement may not exceed 2.5 parts to one part. Wisconsin department of transportation grade A concrete is also acceptable.
All grout shall be placed from the bottom of the annular opening to the surface in one continuous operation. Grouting methods that involve forcing a measured quantity of grout down the inner casing by a plug, such as the Halliburton method, shall not be used. When a conductor pipe in the annular opening is used, the conductor pipe shall meet the material requirements of subd. 8.
and shall be submerged in the grout during the entire operation. For grout depths in excess of 100 feet, a pump shall be used to inject the grout.
A sufficient annular opening shall be provided to permit a minimum of 1.5
inches of grout around the protective casing, grouted liner pipe, or outer casing when it is intended to grout the outer casing in place, including couplings, if used.
Any materials used as drilling aids shall be removed from the annular opening prior to grouting.
Prior to grouting through creviced formations, bentonite or similar approved materials shall be added to the annular opening in the manner indicated for grouting and circulated until the bentonite or other approved material flows to the ground surface.
Grout shall be allowed to overflow from the annular opening until such time as the density is the same as that of the grout being placed. The specifications shall outline the method to be used to check the grout density and equipment shall be available on site to determine grout density.
Standby grouting equipment for grouting annular openings, including a backup grout pump and tremie pipe meeting the material requirements of subd. 8.
, shall be on site during the grouting of all wells.
The grout level shall be maintained above the bottom of any outer casing during the withdrawal procedure.
Grout conductor, or tremie, pipes shall be metal pipe or a rubber-covered, fiber or steel braided, reinforced hose with a minimum pressure rating of 300 psi. Plastic pipe, including PVC pipe, shall not be used as a grout conductor pipe.
The conductor pipe shall be completely withdrawn from the well prior to flushing excess grout from the conductor pipe when grouting down the annular space or shall be disconnected from the grout shoe or street elbow prior to flushing excess grout when grouting within the casing.
(c) Centering guides.
Centering guides shall be installed on the protective casing in a manner to permit unobstructed flow and uniform thickness of grout within the annular space.
(d) Grout curing.
Drilling operations or other work in the well, including development, may not be performed within 72 hours after the grouting of casings or liners. If the department approves the use of quick-setting cement, this period may be reduced to 24 hours. Use of quick setting cement shall be clearly indicated in the specifications submitted to the department.
Every well constructed in rock and all screened wells greater than 100 feet in depth shall be tested for plumbness and alignment by the method outlined in AWWA Standard A100 in effect at the time of well construction or by an equivalent method. The test method shall be clearly stated in the specifications.
NR 811.12 Note
Note: A copy of the AWWA standard is available for inspection at the central office of the department of natural resources and may be obtained for personal use from the American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Ave., Denver, Colorado 80235-3098.
Variance from the vertical of two-thirds the smallest inside diameter of that part of the well being tested per 100 feet of depth to the depth of the pump setting plus 25% may not be exceeded. Also, the well shall allow free passage of a 40-foot section of pipe or a dummy to the depth of the pump setting plus 25%. The outside diameter of the pipe or dummy used may not be more than 1/2 inch smaller than the diameter being tested.
The department will not approve installation of well pumps in wells with kinks and bends which prevent setting a line shaft vertical turbine pump to the desired pump setting plus 25% unless the owner accepts the installation in writing.
A summary and evaluation of the test results shall be submitted to the department prior to permanent pump approval for municipal wells and prior to the department approving the well to be placed in service for other-than-municipal community public wells.
A yield and drawdown test is required. The method to be used shall be clearly indicated in the plans and specifications.
The yield and drawdown test shall be performed on every municipal or subdivision well for a period of at least 12 consecutive hours. For non-subdivision other-than-municipal water system wells, the yield and drawdown test shall be performed for a period of at least 4 consecutive hours. In any case, the test shall be performed at a rate no less than the anticipated pumping capacity and for the duration necessary for the water level to stabilize at the anticipated pumping capacity.
The test shall include pumping a minimum of 4 hours at a rate equal to the capacity anticipated for the permanent well pump.
Water depth measurements shall be made at a frequency sufficient to evaluate the production efficiency and recovery rate of the well.
All of the following data regarding the yield and drawdown test shall be submitted to the department:
Drawdown and recovery measurements from any observation or monitoring wells monitored during the test pumping including date and time measured.
Elevation of the reference point of measurement of the water level data at each monitoring point.
In addition, representative samples of the well water shall be collected as required by subs. (19)
and the laboratory results shall be submitted directly to the department in a department approved electronic format. The laboratory results of any exploratory or investigative water quality analyses shall be submitted to the department on paper lab forms.
Formation samples shall be collected from all new test wells and final wells and from deepening of existing wells at 5-foot intervals and at each pronounced change in geologic formation. The formation samples shall be submitted to the Wisconsin State Geological and Natural History Survey, 3817 Mineral Point Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, in collection bags provided by the survey or in equivalent plastic bags. The formation depths sampled shall be clearly and permanently marked on each bag.
Geological data shall be recorded on the completed Well Construction Report form submitted to the department.
Wells in which no pump is installed shall be capped by welding a steel plate to the top of the casing to form a watertight and airtight seal.
During construction, a temporary means of capping or covering the well shall be provided to prevent debris or any contaminants from entering the well or any annular space.
(19) Bacteriological quality.
Every new, modified, or reconditioned groundwater source shall be disinfected during or after installation of the pumping equipment. Representative samples for bacteriological analysis shall be collected as required in s. NR 810.09 (4)
(20) Chemical quality.
Every new well shall be sampled for chemical quality. Reconditioned or reconstructed wells shall be sampled for chemical quality in cases where changes in water quality may occur. The samples shall be representative of the well water and collected and analyzed for the parameters indicated in the department's approval letter for the well construction, reconditioning or reconstruction. The samples shall be collected near the end of the test pumping period after the well construction, reconditioning, or reconstruction has been completed and where applicable, the well developed. Where not existing, a smooth end sampling faucet shall be installed on the test pump discharge piping at a location suitable for the collection of water samples for volatile parameters and a suitable throttling device shall be provided on the pump discharge piping to facilitate sample collection. The samples shall be submitted to a laboratory certified by the state of Wisconsin. Prior to collection of the samples, the department shall be provided with a detailed description of the sampling protocol for each parameter. Wells that do not meet the primary drinking water standards of ch. NR 809
may not be placed into service unless adequate treatment is provided in accordance with. s. NR 811.04
Observation wells, monitoring wells, test wells, treatment wells or other wells constructed as part of the water system shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter for permanent community wells if they are to remain in service after completion of construction of the community well and if they are located on the well site. When taken out of service these wells shall be abandoned in accordance with s. NR 811.13
. Temporary or permanent observation wells, monitoring wells, test wells, treatment wells, or other wells constructed off the well site shall meet the construction and abandonment requirements of ch. NR 141
, or this chapter.
The wells shall be protected and secured at the upper terminal to preclude entrance of foreign material and minimize the potential for vandalism. The wells to remain in service shall be provided with locking covers.
Specifications documenting the methods and materials for the temporary abandonment of test wells or test borings to be converted into final wells shall be submitted to the department for review and approval.
NR 811.12 History
History: CR 09-073
: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659
, eff. 12-1-10; correction in (5) (d) 1., 4., 5., 7., 9., (11) (a) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6.
, Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; corrections in (5) (d) 1., 4., 5., 7., 9. made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7.
, Stats., Register October 2013 No. 694
Criteria for abandonment.
The owner shall permanently abandon all unused permanent wells, test wells, and monitoring wells for permanent wells or test wells unless the department agrees to the delayed abandonment of the well as part of an extended well abandonment agreement. Wells shall be abandoned in accordance with the following criteria:
Test wells and monitoring wells constructed as part of the test well or permanent well construction and test pumping evaluation processes shall be permanently abandoned prior to placing the permanent well in service unless the department approves the wells to remain in service in accordance with the requirements of s. NR 811.12 (21)
Permanent wells with one or more water quality parameters exceeding a primary drinking water standard contained in ch. NR 809
shall be permanently abandoned unless department approval is obtained to continue the well in service and only if department approved water treatment is installed to provide point-of-entry water quality compliance or an extended well abandonment agreement is obtained from the department in conformance with s. NR 810.22
. The department shall be contacted and written department approval shall be obtained for the abandonment of contaminated wells where the department deems it necessary to require more stringent abandonment requirements in order to protect lower aquifers from additional contamination.
The department may allow existing permanent wells that are not constructed in accordance with the minimum requirements of this chapter to remain in service if the well water quality continues to meet all of the primary drinking water standards contained in ch. NR 809
or if department-approved water treatment is installed to provide point-of-entry water quality compliance. All ungrouted municipal wells shall be immediately reconstructed by grouting in a liner casing to a depth approved by the department or the well shall be taken out of service and permanently abandoned.
(2) Qualifications of persons abandoning wells.
All wells shall be permanently abandoned by persons who meet the following qualifications:
For wells located within a municipal water system, the person shall be a licensed well driller, a licensed pump installer, a water system operator certified under s. 281.17 (3)
, Stats., working for the municipal water system, or a person under the supervision of a licensed well driller, licensed pump installer, or a water system operator certified under s. 281.17 (3)
, Stats., working for the municipal water system.
For wells not located within a municipal water system, the person shall be a licensed well driller, a licensed pump installer or a person under the supervision of a licensed well driller or licensed pump installer.
(3) Temporary abandonment.
When a well is temporarily removed from service, the top of the well casing shall be sealed with a watertight threaded or welded cap. The well shall be permanently abandoned no later than 5 years after the well is temporarily abandoned. The department may enter into a written extended well abandonment agreement with the well owner in accordance with s. NR 810.22
to allow an unused or standby well to remain operational for more than 5 years after the well is temporarily abandoned.
All debris, pumps, piping, ungrouted liner pipe that can be removed, inner ungrouted casings and well screens, and any other obstruction known to be in the well shall be removed if possible before the well is permanently abandoned.
Well casing pipe may be removed from a well to be abandoned if the end of the pipe remains in the well sealing material as the pipe is pulled from the well.
Wells that have uncertain construction details shall be televised prior to abandonment if required by the department to allow for a proper well abandonment.
All casings and liner pipes located within ungrouted annular spaces and that cannot be removed from a well prior to abandonment shall either be shot or ripped in place prior to abandonment of the well. The following minimum requirements shall be met:
The casing shall either be perforated using projectiles fired perpendicular and completely through the casing or liner pipe or shall be vertically ripped.
Each shot shall be a minimum of 0.4 inches in diameter. Each rip shall have a minimum width of 0.25 inches and a minimum length of 12 inches.
The portion of the well with a casing or liner pipe to be shot or ripped shall be completely filled inside and outside by pressure grouting with neat cement from the inside out and from the bottom up in accordance with s. NR 811.12 (14)