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NR 811.12 Note Note: A copy of Example Wellhead Protection Ordinances may be obtained from the department's Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater located in Madison.
NR 811.12(6)(j) (j) The well head protection plan shall be labeled with the name and signature of the person who prepared the plan, the date that the plan was signed, and the name of the company or water system which the person represents. An owner approval letter shall be submitted when required in accordance with s. NR 811.10.
NR 811.12(7) (7)Casing and liner pipe for drilled wells.
NR 811.12(7)(a)(a) The protective casing shall be new prime steel pipe produced to and meeting ASTM, A 53 Grades A or B, ASTM A 106; ASTM A 589 Type I, Grade A or B, Type II, Grade A or B; or API 5L specifications. Previously used or reclaimed pipe may not be used.
NR 811.12(7)(b) (b) Each length of casing shall be legibly marked in accordance with the ASTM or API marking specification and with s. NR 812.17 (2) (d). The protective casing shall have the minimum weights and thicknesses given in Table 1.
NR 811.12(7)(c) (c) Liner pipe installed to seal off a caving zone shall be new, unused, and non-reclaimed steel pipe and shall have the minimum weights and thicknesses given in Table No. 1.
NR 811.12(7)(d) (d) Outer casings can be unmarked, used, or reclaimed pipe but shall have the minimum weights and thicknesses given in Table No. 1.
NR 811.12(7)(e) (e) All casings and liner pipe shall have additional thickness and weight if the Table No. 1 standard thickness is insufficient to assure reasonable life expectancy or to withstand the forces to which they may be subjected.
NR 811.12(7)(f) (f) Casing and liner pipe shall be equipped with a drive shoe when driven and centering guides when set. The locations of all centering guides to be installed shall be shown on the plans or noted in the specifications, or both.
NR 811.12(7)(g) (g) Casing and liner pipe shall be assembled watertight by means of joints welded in accordance with the standard welding procedure specifications of s. NR 812.18 or by threaded couplings meeting or equivalent to the specifications listed in par. (a).
NR 811.12(7)(h) (h) For wells in which the protective casing or liner pipe to be grouted is suspended, the upper terminus of the protective casing or liner pipe shall be securely attached by welding steel bands to the outer casing or by other approved methods, and the grout shall be supported on a steel ring welded to the bottom of the protective casing or liner pipe or on an approved packer attached to the bottom of the protective casing or liner pipe. The bottom of the protective casing or liner pipe may be flared out to meet this requirement.
NR 811.12 Note Note: Copies of the forgoing specifications and standards are available for inspection at the central office of the department of natural resources and may be obtained for personal use from the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19148-2959, and the American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070. - See PDF for table PDF
NR 811.12(8) (8)Concrete wall casing. Concrete wall casing shall meet all of the following requirements:
NR 811.12(8)(a) (a) Be used only in dug wells and collectors.
NR 811.12(8)(b) (b) Be reinforced and at least 6 inches thick.
NR 811.12(8)(c) (c) Be poured in one operation, if possible.
NR 811.12(8)(d) (d) Not have a construction joint within 10 feet of the original ground surface.
NR 811.12(9) (9)Packers. Packers shall be of a material that will not impart taste, odors, toxic substances or bacterial contamination to the water in the well. Lead packers may not be used.
NR 811.12(10) (10)Screens. Screens shall meet all of the following requirements:
NR 811.12(10)(a) (a) Be constructed of stainless steel which will not be damaged by chemical action of groundwater, disinfection chemicals, or future cleaning operations.
NR 811.12(10)(b) (b) Have size of openings based on sieve analysis of the aquifer and gravel pack materials.
NR 811.12(10)(c) (c) Be designed to have an entrance velocity that does not exceed 0.1 feet per second under normal operating conditions.
NR 811.12(10)(d) (d) Be installed and have pumping equipment designed so that exposure of the screen above the pumping level will not occur during normal operation.
NR 811.12(10)(e) (e) Be provided with a bottom plate of the same material as the screen.
NR 811.12(11) (11)Blasting. Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to blasting within a well. Information regarding the procedure, number, size and location of charges shall be submitted to the department in writing.
NR 811.12(11)(a) (a) Blasting shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed well driller and a blaster licensed by the department of safety and professional services under s. SPS 305.20.
NR 811.12(11)(b) (b) No blasting may occur within 100 feet of the grouted protective casing unless specific information is submitted for department approval that justifies the use of low strength prima-cord or charges between 50 and 100 feet of the grouted protective casing if necessary to maintain the production capacity or water quality of a well with a limited length of open drillhole.
NR 811.12(11)(c) (c) All material dislodged during the blasting shall be removed from the well.
NR 811.12(11)(d) (d) Proper safety measures shall be employed to protect the workers and surrounding structures.
NR 811.12(11)(e) (e) The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the proposed blasting work.
NR 811.12(11)(f) (f) Following the completion of the blasting procedure, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected and pumped to waste, and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4).
NR 811.12(11)(g) (g) The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the blasting and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after the blasting, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been blasted, if applicable.
NR 811.12(12) (12)Chemical conditioning. Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to chemical conditioning of a well. Information regarding the method proposed, equipment, chemicals, testing for residual chemicals, disposal of waste and inhibitors to be used shall be submitted to the department in writing.
NR 811.12(12)(a) (a) The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours prior notice prior to the date and time of the proposed chemical conditioning work.
NR 811.12(12)(b) (b) Chemical conditioning, with the exception of batch chlorination, shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed well driller.
NR 811.12(12)(c) (c) All chemicals used in conditioning shall be NSF/ANSI Standard 60 approved for use in potable water as required per s. NR 810.09 (1) (c) unless an alternative chemical is approved by the department.
NR 811.12(12)(d) (d) Acid treatment shall include pH monitoring of nearby private or public wells, use of an inhibitor to protect the metal portions of the well and pump, complete removal of the acid from the well, neutralization of the spent acid, and proper disposal of the spent acid.
NR 811.12(12)(e) (e) The resident project representative shall closely supervise the discharge of chlorinated water. In no case may water with a measurable total chlorine residual content be discharged to a surface water. Suitable barriers, aeration or chemical dechlorination shall be provided when discharging chlorinated water to a surface water or a storm sewer connected to a surface water to ensure the water discharged does not contain a measurable chlorine residual.
NR 811.12(12)(f) (f) Following the completion of the chemical conditioning procedure, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected, pumped to waste and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4).
NR 811.12(12)(g) (g) The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the chemical conditioning and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after chemical conditioning, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been chemically conditioned, if applicable.
NR 811.12(13) (13)Other methods of well reconditioning. Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to performing any other type of reconditioning procedure, including hydrofracturing and impulse generation techniques. The requester shall submit written information regarding the procedure, the equipment, materials, chemicals and pressures to be used, and the disposal of waste to the department for approval.
NR 811.12(13)(a) (a) Hydrofracturing. Hydrofracturing procedures shall meet the following requirements:
NR 811.12(13)(a)1. 1. The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the proposed hydrofracturing work.
NR 811.12(13)(a)2. 2. Hydrofracturing shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed well driller.
NR 811.12(13)(a)3. 3. Clean washed inert, nontoxic material such as sand may be added to the water for the purpose of holding the joints and fractures open after the pressure is reduced.
NR 811.12(13)(a)4. 4. When a well is to be hydrofractured within 100 feet of any existing bedrock well, the well driller shall notify the existing well owner or owners and the department's regional drinking water staff person of the forthcoming hydrofracturing operation at least 48 hours prior to the commencement of the hydrofracturing operation.
NR 811.12(13)(a)5. 5. The upper packer may not be placed at a depth closer than 20 feet below the bottom of the casing.
NR 811.12(13)(a)6. 6. Following the completion of the hydrofracturing procedure, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected, pumped to waste, and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4).
NR 811.12(13)(a)7. 7. The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the hydrofracturing and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after the hydrofracturing, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been hydrofractured, if applicable.
NR 811.12(13)(b) (b) Impulse generation. Impulse generation procedures shall meet the following requirements:
NR 811.12(13)(b)1. 1. The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the impulse generation work.
NR 811.12(13)(b)2. 2. Impulse generation procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed well driller.
NR 811.12(13)(b)3. 3. A report shall be submitted to the department that identifies the impulse method to be used, the means of generating the impulse, the number of passes, the depths in the open drillhole or well screen that the procedure will be started and stopped, the psi strength of each impulse, and the number of impulses per foot. The report shall also include information on all the gases to be used and details of any chemical addition to be performed along with the impulse generation procedures, including the chemicals to be used, the reason for using the chemicals, the strength of each chemical as applied, the means to be used to inject the chemicals, and how the chemicals will be neutralized and disposed of. All chemicals used shall have NSF/ANSI Standard 60 approved for use in potable water as required per s. NR 810.09 (1) (c).
NR 811.12(13)(b)4. 4. Impulse strength shall be maintained low enough to prevent structural damage to well casings, grout, and screens.
NR 811.12(13)(b)5. 5. Following the completion of the impulse generation work, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected, pumped to waste, and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4).
NR 811.12(13)(b)6. 6. The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the impulse generation and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after the impulse generation, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been treated with impulse generation, if applicable.
NR 811.12(14) (14)Grouting requirements.
NR 811.12(14)(a)(a) Grout types and specifications.
NR 811.12(14)(a)1.1. Neat cement grout shall be ASTM C150, Type I or API-10A, Class A Portland cement and water from a known bacteriologically safe and uncontaminated source with not more than 6 gallons of water per sack (94 lbs.) of cement. A mud balance shall be used to measure the grout density. Additives, including bentonite, to increase fluidity, reduce shrinkage or control time of set may be used only with prior department approval. No more than 4.7 pounds of powdered bentonite, a maximum of 5%, may be added to each 94-pound sack of cement. When bentonite is added, the volume of water shall be increased. When bentonite is added, a pressurized mud balance shall be used to measure the grout density. Bentonite mixed with neat cement grout shall comply with Table No. 2. - See PDF for table PDF
(Bentonite table information provided by the Halliburton Co.)
NR 811.12(14)(a)2. 2. Sand cement grout may be used for annular openings greater than 3 inches. The mixture may not exceed 2 parts by weight of sand to one part of ASTM C150, Type 1 or API-10A, Class A Portland cement and not more than 6 gallons of water from a known bacteriologically safe and uncontaminated source to each 94-pound sack of cement.
NR 811.12(14)(a)3. 3. Concrete grout may be used for annular openings greater than 6 inches. The concrete shall contain not less than 6 sacks of cement per cubic yard and not more than 6 gallons of water from a known bacteriologically safe uncontaminated source to each 94-pound sack of cement. The gravel size may not exceed 0.75 inch. The volumetric ratio of either gravel or sand to cement may not exceed 2.5 parts to one part. Wisconsin department of transportation grade A concrete is also acceptable.
NR 811.12(14)(b) (b) Grouting procedures.
NR 811.12(14)(b)1.1. All grout shall be placed from the bottom of the annular opening to the surface in one continuous operation. Grouting methods that involve forcing a measured quantity of grout down the inner casing by a plug, such as the Halliburton method, shall not be used. When a conductor pipe in the annular opening is used, the conductor pipe shall meet the material requirements of subd. 8. and shall be submerged in the grout during the entire operation. For grout depths in excess of 100 feet, a pump shall be used to inject the grout.
NR 811.12(14)(b)2. 2. A sufficient annular opening shall be provided to permit a minimum of 1.5 inches of grout around the protective casing, grouted liner pipe, or outer casing when it is intended to grout the outer casing in place, including couplings, if used.
NR 811.12(14)(b)3. 3. Any materials used as drilling aids shall be removed from the annular opening prior to grouting.
NR 811.12(14)(b)4. 4. Prior to grouting through creviced formations, bentonite or similar approved materials shall be added to the annular opening in the manner indicated for grouting and circulated until the bentonite or other approved material flows to the ground surface.
NR 811.12(14)(b)5. 5. Grout shall be allowed to overflow from the annular opening until such time as the density is the same as that of the grout being placed. The specifications shall outline the method to be used to check the grout density and equipment shall be available on site to determine grout density.
NR 811.12(14)(b)6. 6. Standby grouting equipment for grouting annular openings, including a backup grout pump and tremie pipe meeting the material requirements of subd. 8., shall be on site during the grouting of all wells.
NR 811.12(14)(b)7. 7. The grout level shall be maintained above the bottom of any outer casing during the withdrawal procedure.
NR 811.12(14)(b)8. 8. Grout conductor, or tremie, pipes shall be metal pipe or a rubber-covered, fiber or steel braided, reinforced hose with a minimum pressure rating of 300 psi. Plastic pipe, including PVC pipe, shall not be used as a grout conductor pipe.
NR 811.12(14)(b)9. 9. The conductor pipe shall be completely withdrawn from the well prior to flushing excess grout from the conductor pipe when grouting down the annular space or shall be disconnected from the grout shoe or street elbow prior to flushing excess grout when grouting within the casing.
NR 811.12(14)(c) (c) Centering guides. Centering guides shall be installed on the protective casing in a manner to permit unobstructed flow and uniform thickness of grout within the annular space.
NR 811.12(14)(d) (d) Grout curing. Drilling operations or other work in the well, including development, may not be performed within 72 hours after the grouting of casings or liners. If the department approves the use of quick-setting cement, this period may be reduced to 24 hours. Use of quick setting cement shall be clearly indicated in the specifications submitted to the department.
NR 811.12(15) (15)Plumbness and alignment requirements.
NR 811.12(15)(a)(a) Every well constructed in rock and all screened wells greater than 100 feet in depth shall be tested for plumbness and alignment by the method outlined in AWWA Standard A100 in effect at the time of well construction or by an equivalent method. The test method shall be clearly stated in the specifications.
NR 811.12 Note Note: A copy of the AWWA standard is available for inspection at the central office of the department of natural resources and may be obtained for personal use from the American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Ave., Denver, Colorado 80235-3098.
NR 811.12(15)(b) (b) Variance from the vertical of two-thirds the smallest inside diameter of that part of the well being tested per 100 feet of depth to the depth of the pump setting plus 25% may not be exceeded. Also, the well shall allow free passage of a 40-foot section of pipe or a dummy to the depth of the pump setting plus 25%. The outside diameter of the pipe or dummy used may not be more than 1/2 inch smaller than the diameter being tested.
NR 811.12(15)(c) (c) The department will not approve installation of well pumps in wells with kinks and bends which prevent setting a line shaft vertical turbine pump to the desired pump setting plus 25% unless the owner accepts the installation in writing.
NR 811.12(15)(d) (d) A summary and evaluation of the test results shall be submitted to the department prior to permanent pump approval for municipal wells and prior to the department approving the well to be placed in service for other-than-municipal community public wells.
NR 811.12(16) (16)Yield and drawdown test.
NR 811.12(16)(a)(a) A yield and drawdown test is required. The method to be used shall be clearly indicated in the plans and specifications.
NR 811.12(16)(b) (b) The yield and drawdown test shall be performed on every municipal or subdivision well for a period of at least 12 consecutive hours. For non-subdivision other-than-municipal water system wells, the yield and drawdown test shall be performed for a period of at least 4 consecutive hours. In any case, the test shall be performed at a rate no less than the anticipated pumping capacity and for the duration necessary for the water level to stabilize at the anticipated pumping capacity.
NR 811.12(16)(c) (c) The test shall include pumping a minimum of 4 hours at a rate equal to the capacity anticipated for the permanent well pump.
NR 811.12(16)(d) (d) Water depth measurements shall be made at a frequency sufficient to evaluate the production efficiency and recovery rate of the well.
NR 811.12(16)(e) (e) All of the following data regarding the yield and drawdown test shall be submitted to the department:
NR 811.12(16)(e)1. 1. Date and time the test was started.
NR 811.12(16)(e)2. 2. Static water level immediately prior to starting the test.
NR 811.12(16)(e)3. 3. Gallon per minute pumping rate.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.