“Cross connection" means a connection or potential connection between any part of a water supply system and another environment containing substances in a manner that, under any circumstances, would allow the substances to enter the water supply system by means of back siphonage or back pressure.
“CT" or “CT calc" is the product of the “residual disinfectant concentration" (C) in mg/l determined before or at the first customer, and the corresponding “disinfectant contact time" (T) in minutes, i.e., “C" x “T". If a public water system applies disinfectants at more than one point prior to the first customer, the public water system owner or operator shall determine the CT of each disinfectant sequence before or at the first customer, to determine the total percent inactivation or “total inactivation ratio." The inactivation ratio for a single disinfectant sequence is:
where “CTtable" is the CT value required for the target organism and the target level of inactivation. The sum of the inactivation ratios, or total inactivation ratio for a series of disinfection sequences is:
and is calculated by adding together the inactivation ratio for each disinfection sequence. In determining the total inactivation ratio, the public water system owner or operator shall determine the residual disinfectant concentration of each sequence and corresponding contact time before any subsequent disinfection application points. A total inactivation ratio equal to or greater than 1.0 is assumed to provide the target level of disinfection of the target organism.
“Department" means the department of natural resources.
“Disinfectant contact time" (“T" in CT calculations) means the time in minutes that it takes for water to move from the point of disinfectant application or the previous point of disinfectant residual measurement to a point before or at the point where residual disinfectant concentration (“C") is measured. Where only one “C" is measured, “T" is the time in minutes that it takes for water to move from the point of disinfectant application to a point before or where residual disinfectant concentration (“C") is measured. Where more than one “C" is measured, “T" is determined as follows:
For the first measurement of “C", the time in minutes that it takes for water to move from the first or only point of disinfectant application to a point before or at the point where the first “C" is measured.
For subsequent measurements of “C", the time in minutes that it takes for water to move from the previous “C" measurement point to the “C" measurement point for which the particular “T" is being calculated. Disinfectant contact time in pipelines shall be calculated based on “plug flow" by dividing the internal volume of the pipe by the maximum hourly flow rate through the pipe. Disinfectant contact time within mixing basins and storage reservoirs shall be determined by tracer studies or other department approved equivalent demonstration.
“Disinfection profile" means a summary of daily Giardia lamblia
inactivation through the treatment plant. The procedure for developing a disinfection profile is contained in s. NR 810.34
“Displacement zone" means the 3-dimensional subsurface region surrounding an aquifer storage recovery well into which treated drinking water is placed for storage and later recovery.
“Distribution system" means all pipes or conduits by which water is delivered to consumers except piping and fixtures inside buildings served, water services and private water mains as defined in ch. SPS 381
“Dry land access" means a vehicular access route which is above the regional flood elevation and which connects land located in the floodplain to land outside the floodplain.
“Energy efficient" means that the proposed improvement will consume the minimum amount of energy to meet operational performance requirements throughout the life of the facility or system.
“Entry point" means a location in the water system after treatment or chemical addition, if any, but prior to the distribution system. A sample collected in the distribution system may be considered an entry point sample if the department has determined it is more representative of the water sources.
“Filtration" means a process for removing particulate matter from water by passage through porous media.
“Flocculation" means a process to enhance agglomeration or collection of smaller floc particles into larger, more easily settleable or filterable particles through gentle stirring by hydraulic or mechanical means.
“French drain" means a buried dry well or sump that receives building domestic or floor drain wastewater or both.
“Graywater" means wastewater contaminated by waste materials, exclusive of urine, feces or industrial waste, deposited into plumbing drain systems.
“Groundwater" means any of the waters of the state, as defined in s. 281.01 (18)
, Stats., occurring in a saturated subsurface geological formation of rock or soil.
“Groundwater source" means a source of groundwater obtained from horizontal collectors, infiltration lines, springs, and dug, drilled or other types of wells.
“Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water" (GWUDI) means any water beneath the surface of the ground with either of the following:
Occurrence of insects or other macroorganisms, algae or large diameter pathogens such as Giardia lamblia
in greater than or equal to 10% of representative source water samples collected over a period of 6 months, immediately prior to the first or only point of disinfectant application.
Evidence of relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH which closely correlate to climatological or surface water conditions where the department determines that these shifts are indications of the potential for contamination of the groundwater by the organisms identified in par. (a)
“Hydrofracturing" means hydraulic fracturing of an aquifer by injecting potable chlorinated water into a bedrock formation well under pressures great enough to open the bedrock along bedding planes, joints and fractures.
“Impulse generation" or “gas bursting" means the directed quick release of compressed gases and other impulse generation techniques used to develop or rehabilitate drillholes, well screens and gravel pack.
“Infiltration component" means any device or method that is intended to promote the assimilation of water into in situ soil.
“Living unit" means a residence, apartment unit, condominium unit, duplex unit, manufactured home, or other domicile.
means a pressure or vacuum driven separation process in which particulate matter larger than 1 micrometer is rejected by an engineered barrier, primarily through a size-exclusion mechanism, and which has a measurable removal efficiency of a target organism that can be verified through the application of a direct integrity test. It includes the common membrane technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis.
“Monitoring well" means a well or drillhole constructed for the purpose of obtaining information on the physical, chemical, radiological or biological characteristics of the groundwater.
“Municipal water system" means a community water system owned by a city, village, county, town, town sanitary district, utility district, public inland lake and rehabilitation district, municipal water district or a federal, state, county or municipal owned institution for congregate care or correction, or a privately owned water utility serving the foregoing.
“Nephelometric turbidity units" or “NTUs" means the units used to describe turbidity. Nephelometric refers to the way the instrument, a nephelometer, measures how much light is scattered by suspended particles in the water.
“Non-community water system" means a public water system that is not a community water system.
A non-community water system may be either a non-transient non-community water system or a transient non-community water system.
“NSF or NSF International" means the organization formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation.
NR 811.02 Note
Note: The NSF or NSF International address is PO Box 130140, 789 N. Dixboro Road,, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48113-0140.
“Other-than-municipal (OTM) water system" means a community water system that is not a municipal water system.
“Owner" means any person who owns or operates a public water system.
“Peak demand" means the maximum water demand in gallons per minute at any given time. The peak demand is sometimes estimated to be 2.0 times the total maximum day water use in gallons averaged over 1,440 minutes/day or the peak hour demand in gallons per minute on the maximum day of use.
“Person" means an individual, corporation, company, association, cooperative, trust, institution, partnership, state, municipality or federal agency.
“POWTS" means a private onsite wastewater treatment system.
“POWTS component" means any subsystem, subassembly or other system designed for use in or as part of a private onsite wastewater treatment system which may include treatment, dispersal or holding, and related piping.
“POWTS dispersal component" means a device or method that is intended to promote the assimilation of treated wastewater by the environment.
“POWTS holding component" means any receptacle intended to collect wastewater for a period of time, including holding and dosing tanks.
“POWTS treatment component" means a device or method that is intended to reduce the contaminant load of wastewater.
“Professional Engineer" or “PE" means an individual licensed as a professional engineer by the Wisconsin Department of safety and professional services.
“Protective casing" means the well casing providing the primary sanitary protection and that is grouted in place to a department approved depth.
“Public water system" or “system" or “PWS" means a system for the provision to the public of piped water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances, if the system has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year. A public water system is either a “community water system" or a “non-community water system." A system:
Includes any collection, treatment, storage and distribution facilities under control of the operator of the system and used primarily in connection with the system.
Includes any collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under the system's control which are used primarily in connection with the system.
NR 811.02 Note
The definition of public water system as regulated by this chapter is broader and includes more water systems than those governed by the public service commission under its definition of a public utility in ch. 196
“Pump installer" or “licensed pump installer" has the same meaning as “licensed pump installer," given in s. 280.01 (2e)
NR 811.02 Note
The statutory definition of “licensed pump installer" is any individual who has paid the annual license fee under s. 280.15 (2m) (c) 2.
, Stats., and obtained a license under s. 280.15 (2m)
, Stats., as a pump installer.
NR 811.02 Note
Note: The statutory definition of “pump installing" means the industry and procedure employed in the placement and preparation for operation of equipment and materials utilized in withdrawing or obtaining water from a well for consumption or use, including all construction involved in making entrance to the well and establishing such seals and safeguards as are necessary to protect such water from contamination.
“Recharge area" means the total land area contributing water to a well.
“Regional flood" means a flood determined to be representative of large floods known to have occurred in Wisconsin or which may be expected to occur on a particular lake, river or stream once in every 100 years.
“Residual disinfectant concentration" (“C" in CT calculations) means the concentration of disinfectant measured in mg/l in a representative sample of water.
“SCADA" means Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, a computer system used for gathering and analyzing real time data used to monitor and control water systems and their components.
NR 811.02 Note
Section 281.34 (1) (f)
, Stats., defines “spring" to mean “an area of concentrated groundwater discharge occurring at the surface of the land that results in a flow of at least one cubic foot per second at least 80% of the time."
“Supplier of water" has the same meaning as “owner" given in sub. (44)
“Surface water" means all water which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff.
“Surface water systems" means public water systems using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water as a source and that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 141
, subpart H, P, and W, which contains the national primary drinking water regulations.
“Treated drinking water" means potable water that has been subjected to treatment methods approved by the department to comply with the primary drinking water standards contained in ch. NR 809
and which is obtained directly from a municipal water system via piping from the municipal water distribution system to the point of underground injection.
“Underground injection" means placement of any substance underground through a well, drillhole or water system.
“Utility" means a public utility as defined in ch. 196, Stats.
“Variable output control device" means a physical or electronic device such as a control valve, variable speed drive unit, variable frequency drive unit or similar device to be used to control the gallon per minute pump discharge rate and/or distribution system pressure.
“Virus" means a virus of fecal origin which is infectious to humans by waterborne transmission.
“Waterworks" or “water system" means all facilities, structures, pipes, conduits and appurtenances by means of which water is delivered to consumers except piping and fixtures inside buildings served, water services and private water mains as defined in ch. SPS 381
NR 811.02 Note
Section 281.34 (1) (h)
, Stats., defines “well" to mean “any drillhole or other excavation or opening deeper than it is wide that extends more than 10 feet below the ground surface and is constructed for the purpose of obtaining groundwater."
“Well driller" or “licensed well driller" has the same meaning as “licensed well driller," given in s. 280.01 (2m),
NR 811.02 Note
The statutory definition of “licensed well driller" is any individual who has paid the annual license fee under s. 280.15 (2m) (c) 1.
, Stats., and obtained a license under s. 280.15 (2m)
, Stats., as a well driller.
NR 811.02 Note
Note: The statutory definition of “well drilling" is the industry and procedure employed in obtaining groundwater from a well by digging, boring, drilling, driving or other methods but not including the driving of points for the purpose of obtaining groundwater. It shall also include all construction work and installation of well casings in said well involved therein for the protection of such well water against pollution.
“WPDES permit" means the Wisconsin pollutant discharge elimination system permit issued by the department under ch. 283, Stats.
, for the discharge of pollutants.
“Year-round resident" means a resident who resides in the same living unit for 6 months per year or more.
“Zone of influence" means the area of the cone of groundwater depression formed when the well pump is operating.
NR 811.02 History
History: CR 09-073
: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659
, eff. 12-1-10; correction in (23), (74) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7.
, Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; correction in (54) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6.
, Stats., Register February 2012 No. 674
Alternative requirements. NR 811.03(1)
If the owner of a proposed reviewable project determines that compliance with the design requirements of this chapter is impracticable, the owner may submit in writing to the department prior to submission of final plans a request to use alternative criteria. This request shall contain the reasons that compliance with the design criteria is impracticable and alternative criteria for which department approval is sought and all pertinent facts, data, reports and studies supporting the proposed alternative.
If the department determines that compliance with the design requirements of this chapter would be impracticable in any specific case, or that an alternative proposed has additional benefits with adequate safeguards, it may approve alternative criteria which are in substantial compliance with the requirements of this chapter.