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NR 809.323(1)(b) (b) A water supplier for a groundwater system shall analyze all groundwater source samples, collected under s. NR 809.325 (2), using one of the analytical methods listed in Table G for the presence of E. coli. If the department requires a public water system to be tested for the presence of enterococci or coliphage, the water supplier shall use one of the methods listed in Table G.
NR 809.323(1)(c) (c) Sample volumes of at least 100 mL shall be used for all analyses using the methods in Table G. Analyses shall be conducted in accordance with the documents listed in the footnotes to Table G.
NR 809.323(1)(d) (d) The sample holding time shall not exceed 30 hours. In all cases, samples should be analyzed as soon after collection as possible. - See PDF for table PDF
NR 809.323 Note Note: Copies of the documents listed in the footnotes may be obtained from the sources listed in the footnotes. Copies may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, EPA West, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room B102, Washington DC 20460, Telephone: 202-566-2426, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
1   Methods are described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th edition (1998) and copies may be obtained from the American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005-2605.
2   Medium is available through IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092.
3   EPA Method 1604: Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water by Membrane Filtration Using a Simultaneous Detection Technique (MI Medium); September 2002, EPA 821-R-02-024. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/microbes/documents/1604sp02.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
4   A description of the m-ColiBlue24 Test, “Total Coliforms and E. coli Membrane Filtration Method with m-ColiBlue24® Broth," Method No. 10029 Revision 2, August 17, 1999, is available from Hach Company,100 Dayton Ave., Ames, IA 50010 or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
5   A description of the E*Colite Test, “Charm E*Colite Presence/Absence Test for Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli in Drinking Water," January 9, 1998, is available from Charm Sciences, Inc., 659 Andover St., Lawrence, MA 01843-1032 or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
6   EC-MUG (Method 9221F) or NA-MUG (Method 9222G) can be used for E. coli testing step as described in Sec. 141.21(f)(6)(i) or (ii) after use of Standard Methods 9221 B, 9221 D, 9222 B, or 9222 C.
7   EPA Method 1600: Enterococci in Water by Membrane Filtration Using membrane-Enterococcus Indoxyl-[beta]-D-Glucoside Agar (mEI) EPA 821-R- 02-022 (September 2002) is an approved variation of Standard Method 9230C. The method is available at http://www.epa.gov/microbes/documents/1600sp02.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
8   Medium is available through IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092. Preparation and use of the medium is set forth in the article “Evaluation of Enterolert for Enumeration of Enterococci in Recreational Waters," by Budnick, G.E., Howard, R.T., and Mayo, D.R., 1996, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62:3881-3884.
9   EPA Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Two-step Enrichment Procedure; April 2001, EPA 821-R-01-030. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/microbes/documents/1601ap01.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
10 EPA Method 1602: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Single Agar Layer (SAL) Procedure; April 2001, EPA 821-R-01-029. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/microbes/documents/1602ap01.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
NR 809.323(2) (2)Invalidation of an E. coli-positive groundwater source sample.
NR 809.323(2)(a)(a) The department may invalidate an E. coli-positive groundwater source sample collected under s. NR 809.325 (2) under the conditions specified in subd. 1. or 2.
NR 809.323(2)(a)1. 1. The water supplier provides the department with written notice from the laboratory that improper sample analysis occurred.
NR 809.323(2)(a)2. 2. The department determines and documents in writing that there is substantial evidence that an E. coli-positive groundwater source sample is not related to source water quality.
NR 809.323(2)(b) (b) If the department invalidates an E. coli-positive groundwater source sample, the water supplier shall collect another source water sample under s. NR 809.325 (2) no later than 24 hours after being notified by the department that the sample has been invalidated. The water supplier shall have the sample analyzed for E. coli using the analytical methods in s. NR 809.323 (1) (b) Table G.
NR 809.323(2)(c) (c) The department may extend the 24-hour time limit on a case-by-case basis if the water supplier cannot collect the source water sample within the 24-hour time limit due to circumstances beyond the water supplier's control. In the case of an extension, the department shall specify in writing how much time the water supplier has to collect the sample.
NR 809.323 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10; CR 15-049: am. (1) (a), (b), (d) Table G, (2) (title), (a), (b) Register March 2016 No. 723, eff. 4-1-16.
NR 809.325 NR 809.325 Groundwater source microbiological monitoring requirements.
NR 809.325(1)(1)Sampling location.
NR 809.325(1)(a)(a) Any groundwater source sample required under sub. (2) shall be collected at a location prior to any treatment of the groundwater source unless the department approves a sampling location after treatment.
NR 809.325(1)(b) (b) If the public water system's configuration does not allow for sampling at the well itself, the water supplier may collect a sample at a department-approved location to meet the requirements of par. (a), if the sample is representative of the source water quality of that well.
NR 809.325(1)(c) (c) Source water samples taken in response to positive total coliform samples collected under s. NR 809.31 shall be referred to as triggered source water samples.
NR 809.325(2) (2)Triggered source water monitoring.
NR 809.325(2)(a)(a) Water suppliers for groundwater systems shall conduct triggered source water monitoring if all of the following conditions exist:
NR 809.325(2)(a)1. 1. The public water system does not provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer for each groundwater source.
NR 809.325(2)(a)2. 2. The public water system is notified that a sample collected under s. NR 809.31 (1) is total coliform-positive and the sample is not invalidated under s. NR 809.31 (3).
NR 809.325(2)(b) (b) The following sampling requirements apply:
NR 809.325(2)(b)1. 1. No later than 24 hours after notification of a total coliform-positive distribution system sample, a water supplier for a groundwater system shall collect at least one groundwater source sample, for each total coliform-positive sample, from each groundwater source in use at the time the total coliform-positive sample was collected, except as provided in par. (c).
NR 809.325(2)(b)2. 2. The department may extend the 24-hour time limit on a case-by-case basis if the water supplier cannot collect the groundwater source water sample within the 24-hour time limit due to circumstances beyond the water supplier's control. In the case of an extension, the department shall specify, in writing, how much time the water supplier has to collect the sample.
NR 809.325(2)(b)3. 3. If approved by the department, water suppliers for groundwater systems with more than one groundwater source may meet the requirements of this paragraph by sampling a representative groundwater source or sources if they have an approved triggered source water monitoring plan.
NR 809.325(2)(c) (c) A triggered source water monitoring plan shall evaluate each sample site in the sample siting plan for the public water system under s. NR 809.31 (1) (a) and identify the sources that are representative of each monitoring site. If directed by the department, a water supplier for a public water system shall submit for department approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies one or more groundwater sources that are representative of each monitoring site in the sample siting plan for the public water system and that the water supplier intends to use for representative sampling under par. (b).
NR 809.325(2)(d) (d) A water supplier for a groundwater system serving 1,000 people or fewer may use a repeat sample collected from a groundwater source to meet both the requirements of s. NR 809.31 (2) and to satisfy the monitoring requirements of par. (b) for that groundwater source. If the repeat samples collected from the groundwater source are E. coli positive, the water supplier shall comply with the requirements of par. (e) unless the department requires immediate corrective action under s. NR 809.327 (2) (b).
NR 809.325(2)(e) (e) If the department does not require corrective action under s. NR 809.327 (2) (b) for an E. coli-positive source water sample collected under par. (b), the water supplier shall collect five additional source water samples from the same source no later than 24 hours after being notified of the E. coli positive sample. If any of the 5 samples collected under this paragraph is E. coli-positive, the water supplier shall conduct a corrective action as outlined in s. NR 809.327 (2).
NR 809.325(3) (3)Consecutive and wholesale systems.
NR 809.325(3)(a)(a) In addition to the other requirements of this section, a water supplier for a consecutive groundwater system that has a total coliform-positive sample collected under s. NR 809.31 (2) shall notify any wholesale system from which it receives water no later than 24 hours after being notified of the total coliform-positive sample.
NR 809.325(3)(b) (b) A water supplier for a wholesale groundwater system that receives notice from a water supplier for a consecutive system served by the wholesale system that a sample collected under s. NR 809.31 (2) was total coliform-positive shall, no later than 24 hours after being notified, collect samples from its groundwater sources under sub. (2) (b) and analyze them for E. coli under s. NR 809.323 (1) (b) Table G. The department may extend the 24-hour time limit on a case-by-case basis if the public water system cannot collect the groundwater source water sample within the 24-hour time limit due to circumstances beyond the water supplier's control. In the case of an extension, the department shall specify, in writing, how much time the water supplier has to collect the sample.
NR 809.325(3)(c) (c) If the sample collected under par. (b) is E. coli-positive, the water supplier for the wholesale groundwater system shall notify all water suppliers for the consecutive systems served by that groundwater source no later than 24 hours after being notified of the groundwater source sample monitoring result and shall meet the requirements of sub. (2) (e) unless the department requires immediate corrective action under s. NR 809.327 (2) (b).
NR 809.325(4) (4)Exception to the triggered source water monitoring requirements. A water supplier for a groundwater system is not required to comply with the triggered source water monitoring requirements of sub. (2) if the department determines, and documents in writing, that the total coliform-positive sample collected under s. NR 809.31 (1) was caused by a distribution system deficiency.
NR 809.325(5) (5)Failure to meet monitoring requirements. If a water supplier fails to meet any of the monitoring requirements of subs. (1) to (3), the public water system is in violation and is required to complete public notification requirements under s. NR 809.953.
NR 809.325(6) (6)Public notification. A water supplier for a groundwater system with a groundwater source sample collected under subs. (2) or (3) that is fecal indicator-positive and that is not invalidated under s. NR 809.323, including consecutive systems served by the groundwater source, shall conduct public notification under s. NR 809.951 (1) (b) 9.
NR 809.325 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10; correction in (5) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register November 2010 No. 659; CR 15-049: am. (1) (b), (2) (b) 1., (d), (e), (3) (b), (c), renum. (4) (a) to (4) and am. Register March 2016 No. 723, eff. 4-1-16.
NR 809.327 NR 809.327 Compliance requirements for groundwater source microbiological monitoring.
NR 809.327(1)(1)Compliance requirements. Treatment technique submittal requirements for water suppliers for public water systems with significant deficiencies or confirmed source water fecal contamination are as follows:
NR 809.327(1)(a) (a) No later than 30 days after receiving written notice from the department of significant deficiencies, or notified by a laboratory of source water fecal contamination, water suppliers for groundwater systems shall consult with the department regarding appropriate corrective action, unless the department directs the water supplier to implement a specific corrective action.
NR 809.327(1)(b) (b) If the department specifies interim measures for protection of the public health, pending department approval of the corrective action plan and schedule or pending completion of the corrective action plan, the water supplier shall comply with these interim measures in addition to the other requirements of this section.
NR 809.327(1)(c) (c) No later than 120 days after receiving written notification from the department of a significant deficiency, or notified by a laboratory of confirmed source water fecal contamination, the water supplier for a groundwater system shall have one of the following:
NR 809.327(1)(c)1. 1. A completed corrective action in accordance with the applicable department plan review processes contained in ch. NR 811 for community systems or ch. NR 812 for noncommunity systems.
NR 809.327(1)(c)2. 2. A written and approved department corrective action plan and schedule.
NR 809.327(2) (2)Corrective action alternatives. A water supplier for a groundwater systems receiving written notice from the department of significant deficiencies under s. NR 809.35 or confirmed source water fecal contamination under s. NR 809.325 shall implement one or more of the following corrective action alternatives:
NR 809.327(2)(a) (a) Correct all significant deficiencies.
NR 809.327(2)(b) (b) Provide an alternate source of water.
NR 809.327(2)(c) (c) Eliminate the source of contamination.
NR 809.327(2)(d) (d) Provide treatment that reliably achieves at least 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer for the groundwater source.
NR 809.327(3) (3)Notification and submittal requirements for systems providing 4 log treatment of viruses.
NR 809.327(3)(a) (a) A public water system that has an existing or new groundwater source and serves customers on or after November 30, 2009 and provides department-approved treatment that achieves 4 log inactivation or removal of viruses before the first customer, is not required to meet the triggered source water monitoring requirements of s. NR 809.325 (2) if all of the following conditions are met:
NR 809.327(3)(a)1. 1. The water supplier notifies the department in writing that the public water system provides at least 4-log treatment of viruses.
NR 809.327(3)(a)2. 2. The notification from the water supplier to the department shall include a submittal for review that includes the engineering and operational information that the department will need to evaluate the adequacy of the treatment.
NR 809.327(3)(a)3. 3. The water supplier provides any other information that the department requests to aid in its evaluation of the sufficiency of the public water system's treatment process for viruses.
NR 809.327(3)(b) (b) A water supplier for a public water system that provides at least 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer and places a new groundwater source into service after November 30, 2009, is not required to meet the triggered source water monitoring requirements of s. NR 809.325 if the water supplier complies with all of the following requirements:
NR 809.327(3)(b)1. 1. The water supplier notifies the department in writing that it provides at least 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer for the groundwater source.
NR 809.327(3)(b)2. 2. The notification the water supplier provides to the department shall include an engineering, operational, or other information that the department requests to evaluate the submission.
NR 809.327(3)(b)3. 3. The water supplier conducts compliance monitoring as required under sub. (4) within 30 days of placing the source in service.
NR 809.327(3)(c) (c) If a water supplier for a public water system subsequently discontinues 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer for a groundwater source, the water supplier shall conduct triggered source water monitoring in accordance with the requirements of s. NR 809.325 (2).
NR 809.327(4) (4)Treatment compliance monitoring. A groundwater system that provides 4 log treatment of viruses shall monitor the effectiveness and reliability of treatment for that groundwater source before or at the first customer as follows:
NR 809.327(4)(a) (a) Chemical disinfection.
NR 809.327(4)(a)1.1. All water suppliers for community water systems shall continuously monitor the residual disinfectant concentration using analytical methods and requirements specified in s. NR 809.563 at a location approved by the department and shall record the lowest residual disinfectant concentration each day that water from the groundwater source is served to the public, unless the department allows less frequent monitoring as outlined in subd. 2.
NR 809.327(4)(a)1.a. a. The groundwater system shall maintain the department determined residual disinfectant concentration every day the public water system serves water from the groundwater source to the public.
NR 809.327(4)(a)1.b. b. If there is a failure in the continuous monitoring equipment, the water supplier shall conduct grab sampling every four hours until the continuous monitoring equipment is returned to service.
NR 809.327(4)(a)1.c. c. The water supplier for the public water system shall resume continuous residual disinfectant monitoring, as soon as possible, but no later than 14 days after the failure.
NR 809.327(4)(a)2. 2. The water supplier for a community water systems serving 3,300 or fewer people shall be allowed to monitor the residual disinfectant concentration less than continuously, if the water supplier receives approval under s. NR 811.48 (3) (b) to monitor less than continuously. The monitoring shall be done using analytical methods and requirements specified in s. NR 809.563 at a location approved by the department and the residual disinfection concentration shall be recorded from that water every day the groundwater source is served to the public.
NR 809.327(4)(a)2.a. a. The groundwater system shall maintain the department determined residual disinfectant concentration every day the groundwater system serves water from the groundwater source to the public. The water supplier for a groundwater system shall take a daily grab sample during the hour of peak flow or at another time specified by the department.
NR 809.327(4)(a)2.b. b. If any daily grab sample measurement falls below the department determined residual disinfectant concentration, the water supplier shall take follow-up samples at the frequency determined by the department under s. NR 811.48 (3) (b) but no less than four hours until the residual disinfectant concentration is restored to the department determined level.
NR 809.327(4)(a)3. 3. Water suppliers for non-community systems serving 3,300 or fewer people, unless otherwise required by the department under s. NR 812.37, shall monitor the residual disinfectant concentration using analytical methods and requirements specified in s. NR 809.563 at a location approved by the department and record the residual disinfection concentration once each day that water from the groundwater source is served to the public.
NR 809.327(4)(a)3.a. a. The water supplier for a groundwater system shall maintain the department determined residual disinfectant concentration every day the groundwater system serves water from the groundwater source to the public. The water supplier for a groundwater system shall take a daily grab sample during the hour of peak flow or at another time specified by the department.
NR 809.327(4)(a)3.b. b. If any daily grab sample measurement falls below the department determined residual disinfectant concentration, the water supplier shall take follow-up samples every four hours until the residual disinfectant concentration is restored to the department determined level.
NR 809.327(4)(a)3.c. c. Alternatively, water suppliers for non-community groundwater systems that serve 3,300 or fewer people may monitor continuously in order to meet the requirements of subd. 1.
NR 809.327(4)(b) (b) Membrane filtration. A water supplier for a groundwater system that uses membrane filtration to meet the requirements of sub. (2) shall monitor the membrane filtration process in accordance with all department specified monitoring requirements and shall operate the membrane filtration in accordance with all department specified compliance requirements. To be in compliance with the requirement to achieve at least 4-log treatment of viruses when a public water system uses membrane filtration exclusively, the public water system shall meet all of the following:
NR 809.327(4)(b)1. 1. The membrane shall have an absolute molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), or an alternate parameter that describes the exclusion characteristics of the membrane, that can reliably achieve at least 4-log removal of viruses.
NR 809.327(4)(b)2. 2. The membrane process shall be operated in accordance with department-specified compliance requirements.
NR 809.327(4)(b)3. 3. The integrity of the membrane is intact.
NR 809.327(4)(b)4. 4. The public water system shall be provided with at least 2 log of additional treatment of viruses using a chemical disinfectant.
NR 809.327(4)(c) (c) Alternative treatment. A water supplier for a groundwater system that uses a department-approved alternative treatment to meet the requirements of sub. (2) (d) for providing at least 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer shall do all of the following:
NR 809.327(4)(c)1. 1. Monitor the alternative treatment in accordance with all department specified monitoring requirements.
NR 809.327(4)(c)2. 2. Operate the alternative treatment in accordance with all compliance requirements that the department determines to be necessary to achieve at least 4-log treatment of viruses.
NR 809.327(5) (5)Discontinuing treatment. A water supplier for a groundwater system may discontinue 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer for a groundwater source if the department determines and documents in writing that 4-log treatment of viruses is no longer necessary for that water source. A public water system where 4-log treatment of viruses is discontinued is subject to the source water monitoring requirements of s. NR 809.325.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.