“Best available control technology" or “BACT" means an emission limitation, including a visible emissions standard, based on the maximum degree of reduction for each regulated NSR air contaminant which would be emitted from any proposed major stationary source or major modification which the department, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account energy, environmental and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for the source or modification through application of production processes or available methods, systems and techniques, including fuel cleaning or treatment or innovative fuel combustion techniques for control of the air contaminant. In no event may application of best available control technology result in emissions of any air contaminant which would exceed the emissions allowed by any applicable standard under chs. NR 440
and subch. IV of ch. NR 446
and 40 CFR parts 60
. If the department determines that technological or economic limitations on the application of measurement methodology to a particular emissions unit would make the imposition of an emissions standard infeasible, a design, equipment, work practice, operational standard or combination thereof, may be prescribed instead to satisfy the requirement for the application of best available control technology. The standard shall, to the degree possible, set forth the emissions reduction achievable by implementation of a design, equipment, work practice or operation, and shall provide for compliance by means which achieve equivalent results.
“Building, structure, facility or installation" means all of the activities which emit or may emit a regulated NSR air contaminant, which belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person, or persons under common control, except the activity of any vessel. Regulated NSR air contaminant sources shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if they are classified under the same 2-digit major group as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987, incorporated by reference in s. NR 484.05
“Clean coal technology" means any technology, including technologies applied at the precombustion, combustion or post combustion stage, at a new or existing facility which will achieve significant reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide or oxides of nitrogen associated with the utilization of coal in the generation of electricity or process steam which was not in widespread use as of November 15, 1990.
“Clean coal technology demonstration project" means a project using funds appropriated under the heading `Department of Energy-Clean Coal Technology', up to a total amount of $2,500,000,000 for commercial demonstration of clean coal technology, or similar projects funded through appropriations for the U.S. environmental protection agency. The federal contribution for a qualifying project shall be at least 20% of the total cost of the demonstration project.
“Commence" as applied to construction of a major source or major modification means that the owner or operator has all necessary preconstruction approvals or permits and has done one of the following:
Begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of actual on- site construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time.
Entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which cannot be canceled or modified without substantial loss to the owner or operator, to undertake a program of actual construction of the source to be completed within a reasonable time.
“Commence operation" means the initial startup of an emissions unit following completion of construction which results in the emission of an air contaminant for which the area is designated nonattainment. Any replacement unit that requires shakedown commences operation after a reasonable shakedown period, not to exceed 180 days.
“Complete" means, in reference to an application for a permit, that the application contains all of the information necessary, as determined by the department, for processing the application. Designating an application complete for purposes of permit processing does not preclude the department from requesting or accepting any additional information.
“Construction" means any physical change or change in the method of operation, including fabrication, erection, installation, demolition or modification of an emissions unit, which would result in a change in emissions.
“Continuous emissions monitoring system" or “CEMS" means all of the equipment that may be required to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this chapter, to sample, condition if applicable, analyze and provide a record of emissions on a continuous basis.
“Continuous emissions rate monitoring system" or “CERMS" means the total equipment required for the determination and recording of the air contaminant mass emissions rate in terms of mass per unit of time.
“Continuous parameter monitoring system" or “CPMS" means all of the equipment necessary to meet the data acquisition and data availability requirements of this chapter to monitor process and control device operational parameters, and to record average operational parameter values on a continuous basis.
NR 408.02 Note
Note: Process and control device operational parameters include secondary voltages and electric currents, and other information, such as gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations.
“Electric utility steam generating unit" means any steam electric generating unit that is constructed for the purpose of supplying more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 MW of electrical output to any utility power distribution system for sale. Any steam supplied to a steam distribution system for the purpose of providing steam to a steam-electric generator that would produce electrical energy for sale is also considered in determining the electrical energy output capacity of the affected facility.
“Emissions unit" means any part of a stationary source which emits or would have the potential to emit any regulated NSR air contaminant and includes an electric utility steam generating unit. For purposes of this chapter, there are 2 types of emissions units described as follows:
A new emissions unit is any emissions unit which is or will be newly constructed and which has existed for less than 2 years from the date the emissions unit first operated.
An existing emissions unit is any emissions unit that does not meet the requirements in par. (a)
. Notwithstanding par. (a)
, a replacement unit, as defined in sub. (29s)
, is an existing emissions unit.
“Federal land manager" means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the secretary of the department with authority over the lands.
“Fossil fuel-fired boiler" means a unit, or combination of units, which combusts fossil fuel, or receives heat from other fossil fuel-fired units, to produce steam by indirect heat transfer, and includes units that produce steam for electric generation. The heat input for the units includes any heat provided to the units from the combustion of fossil fuels in other units. The total heat input from fossil fuel-firing for a combination of units is the sum of the heat inputs from fossil fuel-firing for each unit.
“Fossil fuel-fired electric plant" means one or more units that combust fossil fuel to produce electricity. The total heat input for a plant from fossil fuel-firing is the sum of the heat inputs from fossil fuel-firing for each combustion unit that is part of the plant.
“Fugitive emissions" means those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent or other functionally equivalent opening.
“Indian governing body" means the governing body of any tribe, band or group of Indians subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and recognized by the United States as possessing power of self- government.
“Indian tribe" means any Indian tribe, band, nation or other organized group or community, including any Alaskan native village, which is federally recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.
“Lowest achievable emission rate" or “LAER" means, for any source, the more stringent rate of emissions based on the following:
The most stringent emissions limitation which is contained in the implementation plan of any state for the class or category of stationary source, unless the owner or operator of the proposed stationary source demonstrates that the limitation is not achievable.
The most stringent emissions limitation which is achieved in practice by the class or category of stationary source. This limitation, when applied to a modification, means the lowest achievable emission rate for the new or modified emissions units within a stationary source. In no event may the application of the term permit a proposed new or modified stationary source to emit any pollutant in excess of the amount allowable under a new source standard of performance which applies under ch. NR 440
or under 40 CFR part 60
“Major modification" means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would result in a significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR air contaminant and a significant net emissions increase of that air contaminant from the major stationary source.
Any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of a major source of VOCs located in an extreme nonattainment area for ozone which results in any increase in emissions of VOCs from any discrete operation, emissions unit or other pollutant emitting activity at the source shall be considered a major modification for ozone.
Any significant emissions increase from any emissions units or net emissions increase at a major stationary source, that is considered significant for VOCs shall be considered significant for ozone.
For the purpose of applying the requirements of s. NR 408.03 (6)
to major sources of nitrogen oxides located in ozone nonattainment areas or in ozone transport regions, any significant net emissions increase of nitrogen oxides is considered significant for ozone, in addition to any separate requirements for nitrogen oxides.
For the purposes of applying the requirements of s. NR 408.03 (4)
to major sources of PM10
precursors, any significant net emissions increase of a PM10
precursor is considered significant for PM10
A physical change or change in the method of operation does not include:
Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by reason of any order under section 2 (a) and (b) of the Federal Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (15 USC 791
) or by reason of a natural gas curtailment plan pursuant to the Federal Power Act (16 USC 791a
Use of an alternative fuel at a steam generating unit to the extent that the fuel is generated from municipal solid waste.
Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source when one of the following applies:
The source was capable of accommodating before December 21, 1976, unless the change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976 pursuant to this chapter or ch. NR 405
or under an operation permit issued pursuant to ch. NR 407
, or pursuant to a permit issued under 40 CFR Part 51
Appendix S, 40 CFR 52.21
, or regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR Part 51
An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate, unless the change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976 pursuant to this chapter, ch. NR 405
, or 406
or under operation permits issued pursuant to ch. NR 407
, or pursuant to a permit issued under 40 CFR Part 51
Appendix S, 40 CFR 52.21
, or regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR Part 51
The installation, operation, cessation of operation or removal of a temporary clean coal technology demonstration project, provided that the project complies with both of the following:
Other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards during the project and after it is terminated.
This definition does not apply with respect to a particular regulated NSR air contaminant when the major stationary source is complying with the requirements of s. NR 408.11
for a PAL for that air contaminant. Instead the definition in s. NR 408.11 (2) (e)
Any stationary source of air contaminants which emits or has the potential to emit 100 tons per year (tpy) or more of any air contaminant for which the area in which the source is located is nonattainment, except that lower emissions thresholds shall apply as follows to any stationary source for which a complete construction permit application was submitted or was required to be submitted after November 15, 1992:
70 tpy of PM10
, or where applicable, a PM10
precursor, in any serious nonattainment area for PM10
50 tpy of VOC in areas within ozone transport regions except for any severe or extreme nonattainment area for ozone.
50 tpy of carbon monoxide in any serious nonattainment area for carbon monoxide, where stationary sources contribute significantly to carbon monoxide levels in the area.
NR 408.02 Note
Note: If any serious nonattainment area for carbon monoxide is designated in the state, the department will make the determination of whether stationary sources contribute significantly to the carbon monoxide levels in accordance with rules or guidance issued by the U.S. environmental protection agency.
Any physical change that would occur at a stationary source not qualifying under subd. 1.
as a major source, if the change would constitute a major source by itself.
For the purposes of applying the requirements of s. NR 408.03 (5)
, a stationary source for which a complete construction permit application was submitted or was required to be submitted after November 15, 1992 is major for nitrogen oxides if it is located in any ozone nonattainment area or ozone transport region and it emits, or has the potential to emit, nitrogen oxides as follows:
Any ozone nonattainment area classified as rural transport, marginal or moderate.
Any ozone nonattainment area classified as transitional, submarginal or an incomplete or no data area, that is located in any ozone transport region.
Areas classified under the Act as attainment or unclassifiable for ozone that are located in any ozone transport region.
50 tpy or more of nitrogen oxides in any serious nonattainment area for ozone.
25 tpy or more of nitrogen oxides in any severe nonattainment area for ozone.
10 tpy or more of nitrogen oxides in any extreme nonattainment area for ozone.
A stationary source that is major for VOC shall be considered major for ozone and subject to the requirements for ozone in this chapter.
For purposes of implementing the requirements of s. NR 408.03 (4)
, a stationary source that is major for any PM10
precursor shall be considered major for PM10
The fugitive emissions of a stationary source may not be included in determining, for any of the purposes of this chapter, whether it is a major source unless the source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary sources:
Chemical process plants. The chemical processing plants category does not include ethanol production facilities that produce ethanol by natural fermentation, as described by the 6-digit code of 312140 or 325193 in the North American Industry Classification System United States, 2007, incorporated by reference in s. NR 484.05 (17)
Fossil fuel-fired boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than 250 million Btu per hour heat input.
Fossil fuel-fired electric plants of more than 250 million Btu per hour heat input.
Municipal incinerators (or combinations thereof) capable of charging more than 50 tons of refuse per day.
Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels.