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Figure 1.
Typical water table observation well and piezometer construction details.
- See PDF for diagram PDF
NR 141.09 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90; am. (1), Register, June, 1991, No. 426, eff. 7-1-91.
NR 141.10 NR 141.10Tremie pipes and sealing procedures.
NR 141.10(1)(1)Materials. The tremie pipe used for the placement of sealant materials shall be one of the following materials:
NR 141.10(1)(a) (a) Metal pipe,
NR 141.10(1)(b) (b) Rubber-covered hose reinforced with braided fiber or steel and rated for at least 300 psi, or
NR 141.10(1)(c) (c) Thermoplastic pipe rated for at least 100 psi including:
NR 141.10(1)(c)1. 1. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
NR 141.10(1)(c)2. 2. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC),
NR 141.10(1)(c)3. 3. Polyethylene (PE),
NR 141.10(1)(c)4. 4. Polybutylene (PB), and
NR 141.10(1)(c)5. 5. Acrylonitrite butadiene styrene (ABS).
NR 141.10(2) (2)Procedures. This subsection describes department approved sealant placement methods when a tremie pipe is used.
NR 141.10(2)(a) (a) The estimated and actual volume of sealing material used shall be calculated and reported to the department.
NR 141.10(2)(b) (b) The sealant material shall be placed in one continuous operation in such a manner as to not disturb the integrity of the filter pack and seal.
NR 141.10(2)(c) (c) When a tremie pipe is used, the bottom end shall be kept submerged in the sealant material throughout the sealing process.
NR 141.10(2)(d) (d) The sealant material shall be brought up to the ground surface seal. The density of the sealant material in the annular space or borehole at the bottom of the ground surface seal shall be the same as the density of the sealant material being placed. Any settling of the sealant material shall be topped off.
NR 141.10(2)(e) (e) Tremie pipe — gravity. As depicted in Figure 2, sealing material may flow by gravity through a funnel or hopper connected to a tremie pipe. The tremie pipe shall be lowered to the bottom of the annular space or borehole to be sealed and the sealing material placed from the bottom up. The end of the tremie pipe shall be kept submerged in the grout or slurry at all times.
NR 141.10(2)(f) (f) Tremie pipe — pumped. As depicted in Figure 3, the sealing material shall be placed by a pump through a tremie pipe into the annular space or borehole. Tremie pipes used for the placing of pumped slurry or grout shall be fitted with a J-hook end or a closed end with side discharge ports.
NR 141.10 Note Note: The J-hook end or closed end with side discharge ports of the tremie pipe will direct the flow of the materials to the side or upward
Figure 2.
Conductor (tremie) pipe — gravity method
- See PDF for diagram PDF
Figure 3.
Conductor (tremie) pipe — pumped method
NR 141.10 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90; am. (2) (d) and (f), Register, June, 1991, No. 426, eff. 7-1-91.
NR 141.11 NR 141.11Filter packs. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells installed in unconsolidated material and used for the collection of water quality samples shall be constructed with filter packs. Permanent groundwater monitoring wells installed in bedrock may be constructed with filter packs. When used, the filter pack shall be the only material in contact with the well screen. The estimated and actual volume of filter pack material used shall be calculated and reported to the department. All commercially prepared filter packs installed in permanent groundwater monitoring wells shall meet the requirements in sub. (1). All other filter packs shall meet the requirements in sub. (3).
NR 141.11(1) (1)Specifications. The filter pack shall be a well sorted, silica based sand or gravel. The sand or gravel used for filter packs shall be hard and durable and shall have an average specific gravity of not less than 2.50. The sand and gravel shall be visibly free of clay, dust and micaceous and organic matter. Not more than 5% of the sand or gravel shall be soluble in a 10% hydrochloric acid solution. Thin, flat or elongated pieces of gravel, the maximum dimension of which exceeds 3 times the minimum dimension, may not constitute more than 2% of the material by weight. The filter pack for wells installed in unconsolidated material shall be sized to retain at least 50% of the surrounding formation based on a sieve analysis. In formations which are predominantly silt and clay, the filter pack shall be a fine sand. In bedrock, the filter pack shall be a medium or coarse sand or gravel. Crushed limestone, dolomite or any material containing clay or any other material that will adversely impact on the performance of the monitoring well may not be used as filter pack.
NR 141.11(2) (2)Installation. The filter pack shall extend from 6 inches beneath the bottom of the well to 2 feet above the top of the well screen. For water table observation wells constructed in areas where the depth to water table is less than 7 feet, the required filter pack height above the top of the well screen may be reduced to 6 inches to allow for the required amount of annular space sealant to be placed. To ensure that the filter pack is installed evenly surrounding the well screen and casing over the proper depth interval, a tape measure, measuring rod or similar device shall be used to measure the height of the filter pack. The tape measure, measuring rod or similar device shall be carefully raised and lowered while the filter pack is being installed to identify bridging. If bridging occurs the filter pack material shall be tamped into place, surrounding the well screen and casing, using a measuring rod or similar device.
NR 141.11(3) (3)Collapsed formation. Collapsed formation may be used as filter pack material if the collapsed formation will limit the passage of formation fines into the well screen and either an artificial filter pack cannot be installed or the formation grain size is greater than or equal to fine sand sized grains. The grain size distribution of the collapsed formation shall be such that at least 90% of the formation will be retained by the well screen based on a sieve analysis. Analysis of the collapsed formation for specific gravity and particle size shall be performed and documentation shall be submitted to the department to support its use as an acceptable filter pack. Following review of the submitted information, the department may require new well construction if the collapsed formation analysis is not consistent with the filter pack specifications.
NR 141.11 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90; am. (1) to (3), Register, June, 1991, No. 426, eff. 7-1-91.
NR 141.13 NR 141.13Sealing requirements. All materials and procedures used in the installation of seals for permanent groundwater monitoring wells shall meet the requirements of this section. The calculated and actual volume of sealant material used for the filter pack seal and annular space seal shall be reported to the department.
NR 141.13(1) (1)Filter pack seal.
NR 141.13(1)(a)(a) Specifications. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells installed with filter packs shall be constructed with a filter pack seal. For all water table observation wells and piezometers, the filter pack seal shall extend 2 feet upward from the top of the filter pack and shall consist of 2 feet of clean fine sand. When high-solids grout, granular bentonite slurry, bentonite-cement grout or neat cement grout is used as the annular space sealant, 5 feet of bentonite shall be placed on top of the clean fine sand seal. Bentonite chips no greater than 3/8 inch in diameter or bentonite pellets shall be used for seals placed below the water table. Bentonite granules may be used for seals when there is no standing water above the filter pack and the borehole is less than 25 feet or in areas where the depth to water table is less than 7 feet. For water table observation wells constructed in areas where the depth to water table is less than 16 feet, the filter pack seal shall be reduced to 2 feet of bentonite to allow for the required amount of annular space sealant to be placed. For water table observation wells constructed in areas where the depth to water table is less than 7 feet, the required filter pack seal may be reduced to allow for the required amount of annular space sealant to be placed.
NR 141.13(1)(b) (b) Installation. A tape measure, measuring rod or similar device shall be used to ensure that the filter pack seal is installed over the proper depth interval. The tape measure, measuring rod or similar device shall be carefully raised and lowered while the filter pack seal material is being placed to identify bridging. If bridging occurs the filter pack seal material shall be tamped into place, surrounding the well casing, using a measuring rod or similar device. When a tremie pipe is used to place the filter pack seal the procedures of s. NR 141.10 (2) shall be followed. Bentonite pellets, bentonite chips or bentonite granules shall be hydrated in 2 foot lifts as placed in the borehole when placed above the water table.
NR 141.13(2) (2)Annular space seal.
NR 141.13(2)(a)(a) Specifications. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells shall be installed with an annular space seal designed to achieve a permeability of 1 x 10-7 centimeters per second or less. For permanent groundwater monitoring wells constructed with filter packs, the annular space seal shall extend from the filter pack seal to the ground surface seal and shall be at least 2 feet in length. For water table observation wells constructed in areas where the depth to water table is less than 7 feet, the annular space seal shall be bentonite granules. For monitoring wells constructed into bedrock formations and without well screens, the annular space seal shall extend from the bottom of the outer borehole to the ground surface seal and shall be at least 2 feet in length. Sealant materials may not contain additives. These requirements may be met by:
NR 141.13 Note Note: The department does not recommend the use of neat cement grout or cement mixtures in fractured formations because they may impact water quality.
NR 141.13(2)(a)1. 1. Bentonite granules slurry may be used as an annular space sealant in any type of monitoring well except where the depth to the water table is less than 7 feet.
NR 141.13(2)(a)2. 2. Bentonite sand slurry may be used as an annular space sealant in any type of monitoring well except where the depth to the water table is less than 7 feet.
NR 141.13(2)(a)3. 3. Bentonite pellets, bentonite chips or bentonite granules may be used to seal the annular space under the following conditions:
NR 141.13(2)(a)3.a. a. Bentonite granules may be used when there is no standing water in the well above the filter pack and the total well depth is less than 25 feet or the depth to water table is less than 7 feet.
NR 141.13(2)(a)3.b. b. Bentonite chips with diameter no larger than 3/8 inch or bentonite pellets may be used when the depth of standing water in the well is less than 30 feet and the total depth of the annular space seal is less than 50 feet except where the depth to the water table is less than 7 feet.
NR 141.13(2)(a)4. 4. High-solids grout approved by the department, bentonite-cement grout or neat-cement grout may be used to seal the annular space in which a bentonite filter pack seal has been placed except where the depth to the water table is less than 7 feet.
NR 141.13(2)(b) (b) Installation.
NR 141.13(2)(b)1.1. When bentonite chips with diameter no larger than 3/8 inch, bentonite pellets or granules are used to seal the annular space, they may either be poured freely down the borehole or added through a tremie pipe, provided the specifications of par. (a) are met. When a tremie pipe is used to place the annular space sealant the procedures of s. NR 141.10 (2) (a) and (b) shall be followed.
NR 141.13(2)(b)2. 2. When grouts or slurries are used to seal the annular space, the material may be poured freely down a tremie pipe or pumped down a borehole with the use of a tremie pipe, provided the specifications of par. (a) are met. For wells 100 feet in depth or greater the sealant material shall be pumped down the borehole with the use of a tremie pipe. When a tremie pipe is used to place the annular space sealant the procedures of s. NR 141.10 (2) shall be followed.
NR 141.13(2)(b)3. 3. When any slurry or grout is used, there shall be a 12-hour period between the time the annular space seal is installed and the time the protective cover pipe is installed. Any settling in the annular space seal shall be topped off before the protective cover pipe is installed.
NR 141.13(2)(b)4. 4. The top of the well casing shall be covered with a protective cap.
NR 141.13(3) (3)Ground surface seal and protective cover pipe.
NR 141.13(3)(a)(a) Ground surface seal. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells shall be constructed with a bentonite or concrete ground surface seal. The ground surface seal shall extend to a minimum of 60 inches below the land surface, and the top shall be sloped away from the well casing. If bentonite is used, the top of the surface seal shall terminate 2 inches below the land surface and shall be covered with top soil or native soil to prevent drying out. The ground surface seal shall be installed around the protective cover and may not be placed between the protective cover pipe and the well casing. If the monitoring well depth is such that both a minimum 2 foot annular space seal and a minimum 5 foot ground surface seal cannot both be placed, the ground surface seal may be shortened.
NR 141.13 Note Note: Certain soils are prone to frost heave and the department does not recommend use of concrete as a ground surface seal in these situations.
NR 141.13(3)(b) (b) Protective cover pipe. The protective cover pipe shall consist of a metal casing at least 2 inches larger in diameter than the well casing with a locking cap. The protective cover pipe shall extend from the bottom of the ground surface seal to a minimum of 24 inches above the ground surface except as provided in sub. (4). There may be no more than 4 inches between the top of the well casing and the top of the protective cover pipe. The protective cover pipe shall always extend above the top of the well casing. For water table observation wells constructed in areas where the depth to water table is less than 7 feet, the required length of protective cover shall be reduced and may not extend through the annular space seal or into the filter pack. If the monitoring well is located in a floodplain, the protective cover pipe shall be watertight. The department may require additional protective devices, such as rings of brightly colored posts around the well, as necessary. Weep holes or vents may be used in protective cover pipes.
NR 141.13(4) (4)Ground surface seal and flush mounted protective cover pipe.
NR 141.13(4)(a)(a) Ground surface seal. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells with a flush mounted protective cover pipe shall be constructed with a concrete ground surface seal. The ground surface seal shall extend to, but not beyond, the total depth of the flush mounted protective cover pipe. The ground surface seal shall be installed around the flush mounted protective cover pipe and may not be placed between the flush mounted protective cover pipe and the well casing.
NR 141.13(4)(b) (b) Flush mounted protective cover pipe. The flush mounted protective cover pipe may be installed only in high vehicular traffic areas and may not be installed in areas subject to ponding or flooding. The flush mounted protective cover's lid shall have the wording “monitoring well" on its outer surface. Flush mounted protective cover pipes shall be installed through an impervious surface such as asphalt or concrete. If an impervious surface does not exist one shall be created which will support the weight of the traffic in the area. The flush mounted protective cover pipe shall consist of a watertight metal casing with an inside diameter at least 4 inches greater than the inside diameter of the monitoring well casing. The flush mounted protective cover pipe shall be one continuous metal piece or 2 metal pieces which are joined with a continuous weld. The flush mounted protective cover pipe shall be a minimum of 12 inches in length. There may be no more than 8 inches between the top of the monitoring well casing and the top of the flush mounted protective cover pipe after installation. The flush mounted protective cover pipe shall have an exterior flange or lugs. The flush mounted protective cover pipe may not extend beyond the annular space seal. The flush mounted protective cover pipe or the monitoring well shall have a locking mechanism. The monitoring well installed within any flush mounted protective cover pipe shall have a watertight cap.
NR 141.13 Note Note: Figure 4 depicts 2 typical flush mounted protective cover pipes after installation.
NR 141.13 Note Note: An exterior flange or lugs will aid in the stabilization of the flush mounted protective cover pipe within the ground surface seal.
NR 141.13 Note Note: After removing the watertight cap and prior to taking a pressure head measurement a waiting period is recommended to enable the water level to stabilize.
Figure 4.
Two typical flush mounted protective cover pipes after installation. - See PDF for diagram PDF
NR 141.13 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90; am. (1), (2) (a) (intro.), 1., 2. and 3. and (b) 1. and 4. and (3), r. and recr. (2) (a) 4., r. (2) (a) 5. and 6., cr. (4), Register, June, 1991, No. 426, eff. 7-1-91.
NR 141.15 NR 141.15Drilling methods and fluids. The drilling method shall introduce the least possible amount of foreign material into the borehole, produce the least possible disturbance to the formation and permit the proper construction and development of the required diameter well. Only air, water from a known safe source free of bacterial and chemical contamination or bentonite drilling muds, mixed with water from a known safe and uncontaminated source, may be used as drilling fluids. The water used for drilling shall be stored in such a manner as to prevent contamination of the clean water. The department may require chemical analysis of the water used to produce drilling fluids. Hammer drill lubricants, used with air rotary drill rigs, may not be used for installing groundwater monitoring wells. If air is used as a drilling fluid, the air shall be filtered by a coalescing air filter. If water is used, the source of the water shall be reported. Drilling fluid additives may not be used without prior written department approval.
NR 141.15 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90.
NR 141.16 NR 141.16Cross contamination. Precautions shall be taken to prevent cross contamination of aquifers or uncontaminated zones.
NR 141.16 History History: Cr. Register, June, 1991, No. 426, eff. 7-1-91.
NR 141.17 NR 141.17Disposal and decontamination.
NR 141.17(1) (1) All drill cuttings and fluids and surge and wash waters from borehole and groundwater monitoring well construction and development shall be disposed of in a manner approved by the department.
NR 141.17(2) (2) All borehole and groundwater monitoring well construction and development equipment shall be decontaminated by washing and triple rinsing or high pressure heat cleaning to prevent cross-contamination of boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells.
NR 141.17 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90.
NR 141.19 NR 141.19Borehole diameter.
NR 141.19(1) (1)Boreholes in unconsolidated geologic formation. For all permanent groundwater monitoring wells in unconsolidated geologic formations, the borehole diameter shall meet the following requirements:
NR 141.19(1)(a) (a) If hollow stem augers are used, their inside working diameter shall be at least 2 ¼ inches greater than the inside diameter of the permanent well casing.
NR 141.19(1)(b) (b) If solid stem augers are used, their outside diameter shall be at least 4 inches greater than the inside diameter of the permanent well casing.
NR 141.19(1)(c) (c) If an air or mud rotary method is used, the borehole diameter shall be at least 4 inches greater than the inside diameter of the permanent well casing. If a temporary outer casing is used, the inside diameter of the temporary outer well casing shall be at least 4 inches greater than the inside diameter of the permanent well casing. The temporary outer casing shall be pulled as the annular space is being sealed.
NR 141.19 Note Note: The dual-tube or triple-tube reverse rotary systems are rotary methods.
NR 141.19(1)(d) (d) If percussion methods, including the rotary wash, wash down and wash bore methods, with a temporary outer casing are used, in unconsolidated geologic formations, the inside diameter of the temporary outer casing shall be at least 4 inches greater than the inside diameter of the permanent well casing. The temporary outer casing shall be removed during the sealing of the annular space.
NR 141.19(2) (2)Boreholes in bedrock geologic formations. For all permanent groundwater monitoring wells installed deeper than 2 feet past the top of the bedrock, the borehole diameter shall meet the following requirements:
NR 141.19(2)(a) (a) If an air or mud rotary method is used to construct the monitoring well, the requirements of sub. (1) (c) shall be followed.
NR 141.19(2)(b) (b) If percussion methods are used to construct the monitoring well, the requirements of sub. (1) (d) shall be followed.
NR 141.19 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1990, No. 409, eff. 2-1-90.
NR 141.20 NR 141.20Aquifer test or recovery wells. The installation, location and construction of any aquifer test well or recovery well installed for a purpose regulated by the department under ch. 160, 281, 285, 289, 291, 292, 293, or 299, Stats., shall be approved by the department program responsible for overseeing work at the site prior to installation. Unless another time period is specified by law, the department shall complete its review and make a determination on all applications for approval within 65 business days after receipt of the complete application for approval. Applications may be included with other submittals for work to be performed at the site. The start of the 65 day review period will not begin until a complete application is received by the department. All requests for approval shall be in writing, except that for situations that require immediate response, an approval may be requested verbally and an advanced verbal approval may be granted by the department and followed up with a written confirmation. Aquifer test wells or recovery wells may be used for pressure head monitoring or water quality monitoring only with the approval of the department. All aquifer test and recovery wells shall be abandoned according to s. NR 141.25 and documented according to s. NR 141.23.
NR 141.20 Note Note: See ch. NR 812 for additional requirements that apply to aquifer test wells and recovery wells.
NR 141.20 History History: Cr. Register, June, 1991, No. 426, eff. 7-1-91; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, March, 2000, No. 531.
NR 141.21 NR 141.21Well development. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells shall be developed according to the requirements of section. Wells sealed with grout or slurry shall be developed after a minimum waiting period of 12 hours after installation is completed. The goal of well development is to produce water free of sediment and all drill cuttings and drilling fluids.
NR 141.21(1) (1)Wells that cannot be purged dry. All permanent groundwater monitoring wells that cannot be purged dry shall be developed by the following procedure:
NR 141.21(1)(a) (a) Alternately surge and purge the well for a minimum of 30 minutes. The surge and purge cycle shall consist of several minutes of surging followed by several minutes of purging to remove the material collecting in the bottom of the well. The surging shall move formation water in and out of the well screen. The surging shall be accomplished by using either a bailer or surge block or by pumping the well sufficiently to cause a drawdown and then allowing the well to recover and repeating the process.
NR 141.21 Note Note: When a surge block is used, care should be taken to avoid drawing the annular space seal material into the filter pack or well screen.
NR 141.21(1)(b) (b) After the final surge and purge cycle is completed, the well shall be pumped or bailed until 10 well volumes of water are removed or until the well produces sediment free water. If sediment free water is not obtained any remaining sediment shall be removed from the bottom of the well. Well volume shall be calculated in the following manner:
V1 + V2 = well volume
V1 = volume of water in well casing
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.