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DHS 157.24(5) (5)Leakage criteria. Any of the following shall be considered evidence that a sealed source is leaking:
DHS 157.24(5)(a) (a) The presence of 185 Bq (0.005 mCi) or more of removable contamination on any test sample.
DHS 157.24(5)(b) (b) Leakage of 37 Bq (0.001 mCi) of radon-222 per 24 hours for sources manufactured to contain radium.
DHS 157.24(5)(c) (c) The presence of removable contamination resulting from the decay of 185 Bq (0.005 mCi) or more of radium.
DHS 157.24(6) (6)Action required due to a leaking source. A licensee or registrant shall immediately withdraw a leaking sealed source from use and shall take action to prevent the spread of contamination. The leaking sealed source shall be repaired or disposed of under the requirements of this chapter.
DHS 157.24(7) (7)Reports. Reports of test results for leaking or contaminated sealed sources shall be prepared under s. DHS 157.32 (7) and retained for 3 years after disposal or repair of the source.
DHS 157.24 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; CR 16-078: am. (1) (b) (intro.) Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18.
DHS 157.25 DHS 157.25 Surveys and monitoring.
DHS 157.25(1) (1) General requirements.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall make or cause to be made all the following surveys:
DHS 157.25(1)(a)1. 1. Surveys of areas, including the subsurface, necessary for the licensee or registrant to comply with this subchapter.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2. 2. Surveys of areas, including the subsurface, necessary and reasonable under the circumstances to evaluate any of the following:
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2.a. a. Radiation levels.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2.b. b. Concentrations or quantities of residual radioactivity.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2.c. c. The potential radiological hazards of the radiation levels detected and residual radioactivity detected.
DHS 157.25(1)(b) (b) A licensee or registrant shall ensure that instruments and equipment used for quantitative radiation measurements, including dose rate and effluent monitoring, are calibrated at intervals not to exceed 12 months for the radiation measured, except when a more frequent interval is specified elsewhere in this chapter or in a license condition.
DHS 157.25(1)(c) (c) All personnel dosimeters, except for direct and indirect reading pocket ionization chambers and those dosimeters used to measure the dose to any extremity, that require processing to determine the radiation dose and that are used by licensees and registrants to comply with s. DHS 157.22 (1), with other applicable provisions of this chapter or with conditions specified in a license or registration shall be processed and evaluated by a dosimetry processor that meets both of the following conditions:
DHS 157.25(1)(c)1. 1. Holds current personnel dosimetry accreditation from the national voluntary laboratory accreditation program of the national institute of standards and technology.
DHS 157.25(1)(c)2. 2. Is approved in this accreditation process for the type of radiation or radiations included in the national voluntary laboratory accreditation program that most closely approximates the type of radiation or radiations for which the individual wearing the dosimeter is monitored.
DHS 157.25(1)(d) (d) Notwithstanding s. DHS 157.31 (3) (a), records from surveys describing the location and amount of subsurface residual radioactivity identified at the site shall be kept with decommissioning records and shall be retained under s. DHS 157.15.
DHS 157.25(2) (2)Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. A licensee or registrant shall monitor exposures from sources of radiation at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this subchapter. Monitoring devices may be changed quarterly, provided the assignee has not exceeded 10% of the occupational limits in s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a). If the assignee exceeds 10% of the occupational limits, the monitoring device shall be changed monthly. As a minimum, a licensee or registrant shall do all the following:
DHS 157.25(2)(a) (a) Monitor occupational exposure to radiation sources under their control and supply and require the use of individual monitoring devices by all of the following:
DHS 157.25(2)(a)1. 1. Adults likely to receive, in one year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of 10% of the limits in s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a). Monitoring devices shall be individually assigned and not shared.
DHS 157.25(2)(a)2. 2. Minors likely to receive in one year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep-dose equivalent in excess of 1.0 mSv (0.1 rem), a lens-dose equivalent in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem), or a shallow-dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
DHS 157.25(2)(a)3. 3. A declared pregnant woman likely to receive, in one year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem).
DHS 157.25(2)(a)4. 4. An individual entering a high or very high radiation area.
DHS 157.25(2)(a)5. 5. An individual operating medical fluoroscopic equipment.
DHS 157.25(2)(b) (b) Monitor, to determine compliance with s. DHS 157.22 (4), the occupational intake of radioactive material by and assess the committed effective dose equivalent to all of the following individuals:
DHS 157.25(2)(b)1. 1. Adults likely to receive, in one year, an intake in excess of 10% of the applicable ALI in Table I, Columns 1 and 2, of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E.
DHS 157.25(2)(b)2. 2. Minors likely to receive, in one year, a committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 1.0 mSv (100 mrem).
DHS 157.25(2)(b)3. 3. Declared pregnant women likely to receive, during the entire pregnancy, a committed dose equivalent in excess of 1.0 mSv (100 mrem).
DHS 157.25(3) (3)Location of individual monitoring devices. A licensee or registrant shall ensure that individuals who are required to monitor occupational doses under sub. (2) wear individual monitoring devices as follows:
DHS 157.25(3)(a) (a) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the whole body shall be worn at the unshielded location of the whole body likely to receive the highest exposure.
DHS 157.25(3)(b) (b) If a protective apron is worn, the individual monitoring device shall be located at the neck, which is the collar. If a second monitoring device is used, for the same purpose, it shall be located under the protective apron at the waist. The estimated effective dose equivalent (HE) when wearing 2 monitoring devices, one located outside and one under a protective apron, shall be calculated using the following formula: HE (estimate) = 1.5 HW + 0.04 HN where HW = badge reading from the waist badge under the apron and HN = badge reading from the neck badge worn outside the apron.
DHS 157.25(3)(c) (c) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to an embryo or fetus of a declared pregnant woman, under s. DHS 157.22 (8) (a), shall be located at the waist under any protective apron being worn by the woman.
DHS 157.25(3)(d) (d) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the lens dose equivalent, to demonstrate compliance with s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a) 2. a., shall be located at the neck or collar, outside any protective apron being worn by the monitored individual or at an unshielded location closer to the eye.
DHS 157.25(3)(e) (e) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the extremities, to demonstrate compliance with s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a) 2. b., shall be worn on the extremity likely to receive the highest exposure. Each individual monitoring device shall be oriented to measure the highest dose to the extremity being monitored.
DHS 157.25 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; correction in (2) (a) 2. made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register July 2002 No. 559; CR 06-021: r. and recr. (2) (a) 2., Register October 2006 No. 610, eff. 11-1-06; CR 09-062: r. (2) (a) 6. Register April 2010 No. 652, eff. 5-1-10; CR 16-078: am. (1) (a) 1., 2. (intro.), b., c., cr. (1) (d), am. (2) (a) 5. Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18; correction in (2) (b) 1. made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register January 2018 No. 745.
DHS 157.26 DHS 157.26 Control of exposure from external sources in restricted areas.
DHS 157.26(1) (1) Control of access to high radiation areas.
DHS 157.26(1)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall ensure that each entrance or access point to a high radiation area has one or more of the following features:
DHS 157.26(1)(a)1. 1. A control device that, upon entry into the area, causes the level of radiation to be reduced below that level at which an individual might receive a deep dose equivalent of one mSv (100 mrem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
DHS 157.26(1)(a)2. 2. A control device that energizes a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal so that the individual entering the high radiation area and the supervisor of the area are made aware of the entry.
DHS 157.26(1)(a)3. 3. Entryways that are locked, except during periods when access to the areas is required, with control over each individual entry.
DHS 157.26(1)(b) (b) In place of the controls required under par. (a) for a high radiation area, a licensee or registrant may substitute continuous direct or electronic surveillance that is capable of preventing unauthorized entry.
DHS 157.26(1)(c) (c) A licensee or registrant may apply to the department for approval of alternative methods for controlling access to high radiation areas.
DHS 157.26(1)(d) (d) A licensee or registrant shall establish the controls required under par. (a) 1. and 3. in a way that does not prevent individuals from leaving a high radiation area.
DHS 157.26(1)(e) (e) A licensee or registrant is not required to control each entrance or access point to a room or other area that is a high radiation area solely because of the presence of radioactive materials prepared for transport and packaged and labeled under the regulations of the U.S. department of transportation provided that all of the following conditions are met:
DHS 157.26(1)(e)1. 1. The packages do not remain in the area longer than 3 days.
DHS 157.26(1)(e)2. 2. The dose rate at one meter from the external surface of any package does not exceed 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) per hour.
DHS 157.26(1)(f) (f) A licensee or registrant is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas in hospitals solely because of the presence of patients containing radioactive material, provided there are personnel in attendance who are taking the necessary precautions to prevent the exposure of individuals to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the established limits in this subchapter and to operate within the ALARA provisions of the licensee's or registrant's radiation protection program.
DHS 157.26(1)(g) (g) A registrant is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas containing sources of radiation capable of producing a high radiation area if the registrant has met all the specific requirements for access and control specified in other applicable parts of this chapter, such as subch. IV for industrial radiography and subch. VIII for x-rays in the healing arts and accelerators.
DHS 157.26(2) (2)Control of access to very high radiation areas.
DHS 157.26(2)(a)(a) In addition to the requirements in sub. (1), a licensee or registrant shall institute measures to ensure that an individual is not able to gain unauthorized or inadvertent access to areas in which radiation levels could be encountered at 5 Gy (500 rad) or more in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation or any surface through which the radiation penetrates. This requirement does not apply to rooms or areas in which diagnostic x-ray systems are the only source of radiation or to non-self-shielded irradiators.
DHS 157.26(2)(b) (b) A licensee or registrant is not required to control entrance or access to rooms or other areas containing sources of radiation capable of producing a very high radiation area as described in par. (a) if the licensee or registrant has met all the specific requirements for access and control specified in other applicable parts of this chapter, such as subch. IV for industrial radiography and subch. VIII for x-rays in the healing arts and accelerators.
DHS 157.26 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02.
DHS 157.27 DHS 157.27 Respiratory protection and controls to restrict internal exposure in restricted areas.
DHS 157.27(1) (1) Use of process or other engineering controls. A licensee or registrant shall use, to the extent practical, process or other engineering controls, such as containment, decontamination or ventilation, to control the concentrations of radioactive material in air.
DHS 157.27(2) (2)Use of other controls.
DHS 157.27(2)(a)(a) When it is not practical to apply process or other engineering controls to control the concentrations of radioactive material in air to values below those that define an airborne radioactivity area, a licensee or registrant shall increase monitoring and limit intakes by one or more of the following means:
DHS 157.27(2)(a)1. 1. Control of access.
DHS 157.27(2)(a)2. 2. Limitation of exposure times.
DHS 157.27(2)(a)3. 3. Use of respiratory protection equipment.
DHS 157.27(2)(a)4. 4. Other controls.
DHS 157.27(2)(b) (b) If a licensee or registrant performs an ALARA analysis to determine whether or not respirators should be used, a licensee or registrant may also consider the impact of respirator use on workers' industrial health and safety.
DHS 157.27(3) (3)Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)(a) If a licensee or registrant uses respiratory protection equipment to limit intakes under sub. (2), all of the following criteria shall apply:
DHS 157.27(3)(a)1. 1. Except as provided in subd. 2., a licensee or registrant shall use only respiratory protection equipment that is tested and certified by the U.S. national institute for occupational safety and health.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)2. 2. A licensee or registrant may use equipment that has not been tested or certified by the U.S. national institute for occupational safety or for which there is no schedule for testing or certification, provided the licensee or registrant has submitted to the department and the department has approved a request for authorized use of that equipment. The request shall include documentation of a demonstration by testing, or a demonstration on the basis of test information, that the material and performance characteristics of the equipment are capable of providing the proposed degree of protection under anticipated conditions of use.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)3. 3. A licensee or registrant shall implement and maintain a respiratory protection program that includes all of the following:
DHS 157.27(3)(a)3.a. a. Air sampling sufficient to identify the potential hazard, permit proper equipment selection and estimate doses.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)3.b. b. Surveys and bioassays, as necessary, to evaluate actual intakes.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)3.c. c. Testing of respirators for operability immediately prior to each use.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4. 4. A licensee or registrant shall have written procedures regarding all of the following:
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.a. a. Monitoring, including air sampling and bioassays.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.b. b. Supervision and training of respirator users.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.c. c. Fit testing.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.d. d. Respirator selection.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.e. e. Breathing air quality.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.f. f. Inventory and control.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.g. g. Storage, issuance, maintenance, repair, testing and quality assurance of respiratory protection equipment.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.h. h. Record keeping of all items in this subd. par.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)4.i. i. Limitations on periods of respirator use and relief from respirator use.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)5. 5. Prior to initial fitting of respirators, and at least every 12 months thereafter, a physician shall determine that the individual user is physically able to use the respiratory protection equipment.
DHS 157.27(3)(a)6. 6. Fit testing, with a fit factor >/= 10 times the assigned protection factor for negative pressure devices, and a fit factor >/= 500 for any positive pressure, continuous flow, and pressure-demand devices, before the first field use of tight fitting, face-sealing respirators and periodically thereafter at a frequency not to exceed one year. Fit testing shall be performed with the facepiece operating in the negative pressure mode.
DHS 157.27(3)(b) (b) A licensee shall advise each respirator user that the user may leave the area at any time for relief from respirator use in the event of equipment malfunction, physical or psychological distress, procedural or communication failure, significant deterioration of operating conditions, or any other conditions that might require such relief.
DHS 157.27(3)(c) (c) A licensee shall also consider limitations appropriate to the type and mode of use. When selecting respiratory devices the licensee shall provide for vision correction, adequate communication, low temperature work environments, and the concurrent use of other safety or radiological protection equipment. The licensee shall use equipment in such a way as not to interfere with the proper operation of the respirator.
DHS 157.27(3)(d) (d) Standby rescue persons are required whenever one-piece atmosphere-supplying suits, or any combination of supplied air respiratory protection device and personnel protective equipment are used from which an unaided individual would have difficulty extricating himself or herself. The standby persons shall be equipped with respiratory protection devices or other apparatus appropriate for the potential hazards. The standby rescue persons shall observe or otherwise maintain continuous communication with the workers via visual, voice, signal line, telephone, radio, or other suitable means, and be immediately available to assist them in case of a failure of the air supply or for any other reason that requires relief from distress. A sufficient number of standby rescue persons shall be immediately available to assist all users of this type of equipment and to provide effective emergency rescue if needed.
DHS 157.27 Note Note: Examples of means of continuous communication are visual, voice, signal line, telephone, radio or other suitable means.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.