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DHS 157.22(8)(c) (c) The dose equivalent to an embryo or fetus is the sum of all of the following:
DHS 157.22(8)(c)1. 1. The deep dose equivalent to the declared pregnant women.
DHS 157.22(8)(c)2. 2. The dose equivalent to the embryo or fetus resulting from radionuclides in the embryo or fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman.
DHS 157.22(8)(d) (d) If the dose equivalent to the embryo or fetus is found to have exceeded 5 mSv (500 mrem), or is within 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) of this dose, by the time the woman declares the pregnancy to a licensee or registrant, a licensee or registrant shall be deemed to be in compliance with par. (a) if the additional dose equivalent to the embryo or fetus does not exceed 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) during the remainder of the pregnancy.
DHS 157.22 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; CR 06-021: am. (1) (a) 2. (intro.), b., and (8) (c) (intro.), r. and recr. (1) (c) 1., Register October 2006 No. 610, eff. 11-1-06; CR 09-062: am. (1) (c) 1. Register April 2010 No. 652, eff. 5-1-10; CR 16-078: am. (4) (h) 2., (5) (d) 1. Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18; correction in (1) (d), (4) (h) 2. made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register January 2018 No. 745.
DHS 157.23 DHS 157.23 Radiation dose limits for individual members of the public.
DHS 157.23(1) (1) Dose limits for individual members of the public.
DHS 157.23(1)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall conduct operations to meet all of the following:
DHS 157.23(1)(a)1. 1. The total effective dose equivalent to individual members of the public from the licensed or registered operation may not exceed one mSv (100 mrem) in a year, exclusive of the dose contribution from background radiation, medical radiation exposure, exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with s. DHS 157.62 (8), voluntary participation in medical research programs and the licensee's or registrant's disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage under s. DHS 157.30 (3). Facilities with radiation machines installed prior to the effective date of August 1, 2002, that meet the requirements of 5 mSv (500 mrem) in a year are exempt from this requirement.
DHS 157.23(1)(a)2. 2. The dose in any unrestricted area from external sources does not exceed 0.02 mSv (2 mrem) in any one hour, exclusive of the dose contributions from patients administered radioactive material and released in accordance with s. DHS 157.62 (8).
DHS 157.23(1)(b) (b) If a licensee or registrant permits members of the public to have access to controlled areas, the limits under par. (a) 1. for members of the public continue to apply to those individuals.
DHS 157.23(1)(c) (c) A licensee or a registrant or an applicant for a license or registration may apply for prior department authorization to operate up to an annual dose limit for an individual member of the public of 5 mSv (500 mrem). The application shall include all the following information:
DHS 157.23(1)(c)1. 1. Demonstration of the need for and the expected duration of operations exceeding the limit in par. (a).
DHS 157.23(1)(c)2. 2. A licensee's or registrant's program to assess and control dose within the 5 mSv (500 mrem) annual limit.
DHS 157.23(1)(c)3. 3. The procedures to be followed to maintain the dose ALARA.
DHS 157.23(1)(d) (d) In addition to the requirements of this section, a licensee or registrant subject to the provisions of the U.S. environmental protection agency's generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 CFR 190 shall comply with those standards.
DHS 157.23(1)(e) (e) The department may impose additional restrictions on radiation levels in unrestricted areas and on the total quantity of radionuclides that a licensee or registrant may release in effluents to restrict the collective dose.
DHS 157.23(1)(f) (f) A licensee or registrant may permit visitors to individuals who cannot be released under s. DHS 157.62 (8). A visitor may receive a radiation dose greater than one mSv (100 mrem) if both of the following conditions are met:
DHS 157.23(1)(f)1. 1. The radiation dose received by the visitor does not exceed 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
DHS 157.23(1)(f)2. 2. The authorized user has predetermined that the visit is appropriate.
DHS 157.23(2) (2)Compliance with dose limits for individual members of the public.
DHS 157.23(2)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall make or cause to be made, as appropriate, surveys of radiation levels in unrestricted and controlled areas and radioactive materials in effluents released to unrestricted and controlled areas to demonstrate compliance with the dose limits for individual members of the public in sub. (1).
DHS 157.23(2)(b) (b) A licensee or registrant shall show compliance with the annual dose limit in sub. (1) by either of the following means:
DHS 157.23(2)(b)1. 1. Demonstrating by measurement or calculation that the total effective dose equivalent to the individual likely to receive the highest dose from the licensed or registered operation does not exceed the annual dose limit.
DHS 157.23(2)(b)2. 2. Demonstrating both of the following:
DHS 157.23(2)(b)2.a. a. The annual average concentrations of radioactive material released in gaseous and liquid effluents at the boundary of the unrestricted area do not exceed the values specified in Table II of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E.
DHS 157.23(2)(b)2.b. b. If an individual were continuously present in an unrestricted area, the dose from external sources would not exceed 0.02 mSv (2 mrem) in an hour and 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) in a year.
DHS 157.23(2)(c) (c) Upon approval from the department, a licensee or registrant may adjust the effluent concentration values in Table II of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E for members of the public to take into account the actual physical and chemical characteristics of the effluents, such as aerosol size distribution, solubility, density and chemical form.
DHS 157.23 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; correction in (2) (b) 2. a., (c) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register January 2018 No. 745.
DHS 157.24 DHS 157.24 Testing for leakage or contamination of sealed sources.
DHS 157.24(1)(1) General requirements. A licensee or registrant in possession of any sealed source shall ensure that all of the following requirements are met:
DHS 157.24(1)(a) (a) Each sealed source, other than hydrogen-3, with a half-life of 30 days or more and in any form other than gas or seeds of iridium-192 encased in nylon ribbon, shall be tested for leakage or contamination as follows:
DHS 157.24(1)(a)1. 1. Prior to initial use.
DHS 157.24(1)(a)2. 2. Unless otherwise authorized by the department, the NRC or another agreement state, at intervals not to exceed 6 months, except that each source designed to emit alpha particles shall be tested at intervals not to exceed 3 months.
DHS 157.24(1)(a)3. 3. At any time there is reason to suspect that a sealed source might have been damaged or might be leaking, it shall be tested for leakage before further use.
DHS 157.24(1)(a)4. 4. In the absence of a certificate from a transferor indicating that a test for leakage has been made within 6 months prior to the transfer, the sealed source may not be put into use until tested and the results received.
DHS 157.24(1)(b) (b) Each source meeting the criteria under par. (a) not in use and identified as being in storage shall meet all the following conditions:
DHS 157.24(1)(b)1. 1. Sources other than brachytherapy or teletherapy sources shall be tested for leakage at intervals not to exceed 5 years.
DHS 157.24(1)(b)2. 2. Sources shall be tested for leakage and test results received prior any use or transfer, unless a test for leakage has been made within 6 months prior to the date of use or transfer.
DHS 157.24(1)(b)3. 3. Sources in storage shall be inventoried at intervals not to exceed 6 months.
DHS 157.24(1)(c) (c) Tests for leakage for all sealed sources, except brachytherapy sources manufactured to contain radium, shall be capable of detecting the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 mCi) of radioactive material on a test sample. Test samples shall be taken from the sealed source or from the surfaces of the container in which the sealed source is stored or mounted on which one might expect contamination to accumulate. For a sealed source contained in a device, test samples shall be obtained when the source is in the “off" position.
DHS 157.24(1)(d) (d) Tests for leakage for brachytherapy sources manufactured to contain radium shall be capable of detecting an absolute leakage rate of 37 Bq (0.001 mCi) of radon-222 in a 24 hour period when the collection efficiency for radon-222 and its progeny has been determined with respect to collection method, volume and time.
DHS 157.24(1)(e) (e) Test samples shall be taken from the interior surfaces of the container in which sealed sources of radium are stored. The test shall be capable of detecting the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 mCi) of a radium daughter that has a half-life greater than 4 days.
DHS 157.24(2) (2)Exemptions. Notwithstanding the requirements in sub. (1), any sealed source is exempt from tests for leakage when the sealed source contains 3.7 MBq (100 mCi) or less of beta- or gamma-emitting material or 0.37 MBq (10 mCi) or less of alpha-emitting material.
DHS 157.24(3) (3)Authorization to conduct testing. Tests for leakage or contamination from sealed sources shall be performed by persons specifically authorized by the department, an agreement state, a licensing state or the NRC to perform the services.
DHS 157.24(4) (4)Records. Records of test results for sealed sources shall be made under s. DHS 157.31 (4).
DHS 157.24(5) (5)Leakage criteria. Any of the following shall be considered evidence that a sealed source is leaking:
DHS 157.24(5)(a) (a) The presence of 185 Bq (0.005 mCi) or more of removable contamination on any test sample.
DHS 157.24(5)(b) (b) Leakage of 37 Bq (0.001 mCi) of radon-222 per 24 hours for sources manufactured to contain radium.
DHS 157.24(5)(c) (c) The presence of removable contamination resulting from the decay of 185 Bq (0.005 mCi) or more of radium.
DHS 157.24(6) (6)Action required due to a leaking source. A licensee or registrant shall immediately withdraw a leaking sealed source from use and shall take action to prevent the spread of contamination. The leaking sealed source shall be repaired or disposed of under the requirements of this chapter.
DHS 157.24(7) (7)Reports. Reports of test results for leaking or contaminated sealed sources shall be prepared under s. DHS 157.32 (7) and retained for 3 years after disposal or repair of the source.
DHS 157.24 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; CR 16-078: am. (1) (b) (intro.) Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18.
DHS 157.25 DHS 157.25 Surveys and monitoring.
DHS 157.25(1) (1) General requirements.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall make or cause to be made all the following surveys:
DHS 157.25(1)(a)1. 1. Surveys of areas, including the subsurface, necessary for the licensee or registrant to comply with this subchapter.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2. 2. Surveys of areas, including the subsurface, necessary and reasonable under the circumstances to evaluate any of the following:
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2.a. a. Radiation levels.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2.b. b. Concentrations or quantities of residual radioactivity.
DHS 157.25(1)(a)2.c. c. The potential radiological hazards of the radiation levels detected and residual radioactivity detected.
DHS 157.25(1)(b) (b) A licensee or registrant shall ensure that instruments and equipment used for quantitative radiation measurements, including dose rate and effluent monitoring, are calibrated at intervals not to exceed 12 months for the radiation measured, except when a more frequent interval is specified elsewhere in this chapter or in a license condition.
DHS 157.25(1)(c) (c) All personnel dosimeters, except for direct and indirect reading pocket ionization chambers and those dosimeters used to measure the dose to any extremity, that require processing to determine the radiation dose and that are used by licensees and registrants to comply with s. DHS 157.22 (1), with other applicable provisions of this chapter or with conditions specified in a license or registration shall be processed and evaluated by a dosimetry processor that meets both of the following conditions:
DHS 157.25(1)(c)1. 1. Holds current personnel dosimetry accreditation from the national voluntary laboratory accreditation program of the national institute of standards and technology.
DHS 157.25(1)(c)2. 2. Is approved in this accreditation process for the type of radiation or radiations included in the national voluntary laboratory accreditation program that most closely approximates the type of radiation or radiations for which the individual wearing the dosimeter is monitored.
DHS 157.25(1)(d) (d) Notwithstanding s. DHS 157.31 (3) (a), records from surveys describing the location and amount of subsurface residual radioactivity identified at the site shall be kept with decommissioning records and shall be retained under s. DHS 157.15.
DHS 157.25(2) (2)Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. A licensee or registrant shall monitor exposures from sources of radiation at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this subchapter. Monitoring devices may be changed quarterly, provided the assignee has not exceeded 10% of the occupational limits in s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a). If the assignee exceeds 10% of the occupational limits, the monitoring device shall be changed monthly. As a minimum, a licensee or registrant shall do all the following:
DHS 157.25(2)(a) (a) Monitor occupational exposure to radiation sources under their control and supply and require the use of individual monitoring devices by all of the following:
DHS 157.25(2)(a)1. 1. Adults likely to receive, in one year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of 10% of the limits in s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a). Monitoring devices shall be individually assigned and not shared.
DHS 157.25(2)(a)2. 2. Minors likely to receive in one year, from radiation sources external to the body, a deep-dose equivalent in excess of 1.0 mSv (0.1 rem), a lens-dose equivalent in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem), or a shallow-dose equivalent to the skin or to the extremities in excess of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
DHS 157.25(2)(a)3. 3. A declared pregnant woman likely to receive, in one year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem).
DHS 157.25(2)(a)4. 4. An individual entering a high or very high radiation area.
DHS 157.25(2)(a)5. 5. An individual operating medical fluoroscopic equipment.
DHS 157.25(2)(b) (b) Monitor, to determine compliance with s. DHS 157.22 (4), the occupational intake of radioactive material by and assess the committed effective dose equivalent to all of the following individuals:
DHS 157.25(2)(b)1. 1. Adults likely to receive, in one year, an intake in excess of 10% of the applicable ALI in Table I, Columns 1 and 2, of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E.
DHS 157.25(2)(b)2. 2. Minors likely to receive, in one year, a committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 1.0 mSv (100 mrem).
DHS 157.25(2)(b)3. 3. Declared pregnant women likely to receive, during the entire pregnancy, a committed dose equivalent in excess of 1.0 mSv (100 mrem).
DHS 157.25(3) (3)Location of individual monitoring devices. A licensee or registrant shall ensure that individuals who are required to monitor occupational doses under sub. (2) wear individual monitoring devices as follows:
DHS 157.25(3)(a) (a) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the whole body shall be worn at the unshielded location of the whole body likely to receive the highest exposure.
DHS 157.25(3)(b) (b) If a protective apron is worn, the individual monitoring device shall be located at the neck, which is the collar. If a second monitoring device is used, for the same purpose, it shall be located under the protective apron at the waist. The estimated effective dose equivalent (HE) when wearing 2 monitoring devices, one located outside and one under a protective apron, shall be calculated using the following formula: HE (estimate) = 1.5 HW + 0.04 HN where HW = badge reading from the waist badge under the apron and HN = badge reading from the neck badge worn outside the apron.
DHS 157.25(3)(c) (c) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to an embryo or fetus of a declared pregnant woman, under s. DHS 157.22 (8) (a), shall be located at the waist under any protective apron being worn by the woman.
DHS 157.25(3)(d) (d) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the lens dose equivalent, to demonstrate compliance with s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a) 2. a., shall be located at the neck or collar, outside any protective apron being worn by the monitored individual or at an unshielded location closer to the eye.
DHS 157.25(3)(e) (e) An individual monitoring device used for monitoring the dose to the extremities, to demonstrate compliance with s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a) 2. b., shall be worn on the extremity likely to receive the highest exposure. Each individual monitoring device shall be oriented to measure the highest dose to the extremity being monitored.
DHS 157.25 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; correction in (2) (a) 2. made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register July 2002 No. 559; CR 06-021: r. and recr. (2) (a) 2., Register October 2006 No. 610, eff. 11-1-06; CR 09-062: r. (2) (a) 6. Register April 2010 No. 652, eff. 5-1-10; CR 16-078: am. (1) (a) 1., 2. (intro.), b., c., cr. (1) (d), am. (2) (a) 5. Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18; correction in (2) (b) 1. made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register January 2018 No. 745.
DHS 157.26 DHS 157.26 Control of exposure from external sources in restricted areas.
DHS 157.26(1) (1) Control of access to high radiation areas.
DHS 157.26(1)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall ensure that each entrance or access point to a high radiation area has one or more of the following features:
DHS 157.26(1)(a)1. 1. A control device that, upon entry into the area, causes the level of radiation to be reduced below that level at which an individual might receive a deep dose equivalent of one mSv (100 mrem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
DHS 157.26(1)(a)2. 2. A control device that energizes a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal so that the individual entering the high radiation area and the supervisor of the area are made aware of the entry.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.