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DHS 157.15(7)(d) (d) The list under par. (a) 3. shall be updated every 2 years.
DHS 157.15 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. — see Note at the start of the chapter; CR 06-021: am. (1) (a) (intro.), (b) 2., (3) (b) 1., (4) (a) 1. to 3., (5) (a) 3. and (7) (a) 3. (intro.), cr. (1) (a) 3. and 4., Register October 2006 No. 610, eff. 11-1-06; CR 16-078: am. (1) (a) 2., 4., (5) (a) (intro.), 1. (intro.), cr. (5) (a) 1. e., f., r. and recr. (5) (a) 2., am. (5) (a) 3., (b), cr. (5) (c) Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18; correction in (1) (a) 1. to 4., (4) (a) 1. to 3. made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register January 2018 No. 745.
subch. III of ch. DHS 157 Subchapter III — Standards for Protection from Radiation
DHS 157.20 DHS 157.20 Implementation.
DHS 157.20(1)(1) Any existing license or registration condition more restrictive than this subchapter remains in force until there is an amendment or renewal of the license or registration.
DHS 157.20(2) (2) If a condition attached to a license or registration exempts a licensee or registrant from a provision of this subchapter in effect on or before August 1, 2002, the condition also exempts the licensee or registrant from the corresponding provision of this subchapter.
DHS 157.20(3) (3) If a condition attached to a license or registration cites provisions of this subchapter in effect prior to August 1, 2002, that do not correspond to any provisions of this subchapter, the license or registration condition remains in force until there is an amendment or renewal of the license or registration that modifies or removes the condition.
DHS 157.20 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02.
DHS 157.21 DHS 157.21 Radiation protection programs.
DHS 157.21(1) (1) A licensee or registrant shall develop, document and implement a radiation protection program sufficient to ensure compliance with the provisions of this subchapter. A licensee or registrant shall designate a person in control over each radiation installation.
DHS 157.21 Note Note: See s. DHS 157.31 (2) for record keeping requirements relating to programs in this subchapter.
DHS 157.21(2) (2) A licensee or registrant shall use, to the extent practical, procedures and engineering controls based upon sound radiation protection principles to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are as low as is reasonably achievable.
DHS 157.21(3) (3) A licensee or registrant shall, at intervals not to exceed 12 months, review the radiation protection program content and implementation.
DHS 157.21(4) (4) To implement the ALARA requirements of sub. (2), and notwithstanding the requirements in s. DHS 157.23 (1), a licensee shall establish a constraint on air emissions of radioactive material to the environment, excluding Radon-222 and its progeny, so that an individual member of the public likely to receive the highest dose does not receive a total effective dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) per year from the air emissions. A licensee to whom this requirement applies shall report as provided in s. DHS 157.32 (3) any time the licensee exceeds the dose limit of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) per year and shall promptly take appropriate corrective action to safeguard against recurrence.
DHS 157.21 History History: CR 01-108: cr. Register July 2002 No. 559, eff. 8-1-02; CR 16-078: am. (1) Register January 2018 No. 745, eff. 2-1-18.
DHS 157.22 DHS 157.22 Occupational dose limits.
DHS 157.22(1) (1) Occupational dose limits for adults.
DHS 157.22(1)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under sub. (6), to the following dose limits:
DHS 157.22(1)(a)1. 1. An annual limit, which is the more limiting of either of the following:
DHS 157.22(1)(a)1.a. a. The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 0.05 Sv (5 rem).
DHS 157.22(1)(a)1.b. b. The sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 0.5 Sv (50 rem).
DHS 157.22(1)(a)2. 2. The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body and to the skin of the extremities which are:
DHS 157.22(1)(a)2.a. a. A lens dose equivalent of 0.15 Sv (15 rem).
DHS 157.22(1)(a)2.b. b. A shallow dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.
DHS 157.22(1)(b) (b) Doses received in excess of the annual limits, including doses received during accidents, emergencies and planned special exposures, shall be subtracted from the limits for planned special exposures that the individual may receive during the current year and during the individual's lifetime.
DHS 157.22(1)(c) (c) The assigned deep dose equivalent and shallow dose equivalent shall be for the portion of the body receiving the highest exposure, as follows:
DHS 157.22(1)(c)1. 1. When the external exposure is determined by measurement with an external personal monitoring device, the deep-dose equivalent shall be used in place of the effective dose equivalent, unless the effective dose equivalent is determined by a method approved by the department. The assigned deep-dose equivalent shall be for the part of the body receiving the highest exposure. The assigned shallow-dose equivalent shall be the dose averaged over the contiguous 10 square centimeters of skin receiving the highest exposure. The deep-dose equivalent, lens-dose equivalent and shallow-dose equivalent may be assessed from surveys or other radiation measurements for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the occupational dose limits, if the individual monitoring device was not in the region of highest potential exposure, or the results of individual monitoring are unavailable.
DHS 157.22(1)(c)2. 2. When a protective apron is worn while working with medical fluoroscopic equipment and monitoring is conducted as specified in s. DHS 157.25 (2) (a) 5., the effective dose equivalent for external radiation shall be determined as follows:
DHS 157.22(1)(c)2.a. a. When only one individual monitoring device is used and it is located at the neck outside the protective apron, and the exposure is less than 25% of any limit specified in par. (a), the reported deep dose equivalent shall be the effective dose equivalent for external radiation.
DHS 157.22(1)(c)2.b. b. When only one individual monitoring device is used and it is located at the neck outside the apron and the exposure is greater than 25% of the any limit specified in par. (a), the effective dose equivalent shall be the deep dose equivalent multiplied by 0.3.
DHS 157.22(1)(c)2.c. c. If a protective apron is worn, the individual monitoring device shall be located at the neck, which is, collar. If a second monitoring device is used, for the same purpose, it shall be located under the protective apron at the waist. The estimated effective dose equivalent (HE) when wearing 2 monitoring devices, one located outside and one under a protective apron, shall be calculated using the following formula: HE (estimate) = 1.5 HW + 0.04 HN where HW = badge reading from the waist badge under the apron and HN = badge reading from the neck badge worn outside the apron.
DHS 157.22(1)(d) (d) Derived air concentration and annual limit on intake values are specified in Table I of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E and may be used to determine the individual's dose and to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits.
DHS 157.22 Note Note: See s. DHS 157.31 (7) for instructions about recording the exposure levels.
DHS 157.22(1)(e) (e) In addition to the annual dose limits, a licensee or registrant shall limit the soluble uranium intake by an individual to 10 milligrams in a week in consideration of chemical toxicity.
DHS 157.22 Note Note: See footnote c/ of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E for the calculation method for determining DAC for soluble mixtures of uranium.
DHS 157.22(1)(f) (f) A licensee or registrant shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person during the current year.
DHS 157.22 Note Note: See sub. (5) for instruction on determining occupational dose.
DHS 157.22(2) (2)Compliance with requirements for summation of external and internal doses.
DHS 157.22(2)(a)(a) If a licensee or registrant is required to monitor under both s. DHS 157.25 (2) (a) and (b), a licensee or registrant shall demonstrate compliance with the dose limits by summing external and internal doses. If a licensee or registrant is required to monitor only under s. DHS 157.25 (2) (a) or (b), then summation is not required to demonstrate compliance with the dose limits. A licensee or registrant may demonstrate compliance with the requirements for summation of external and internal doses by meeting one of the conditions in par. (b) and the conditions of pars. (c) and (d). The dose equivalents for the lens of the eye, the skin and the extremities are not included in the summation, but are subject to separate limits.
DHS 157.22(2)(b) (b) If the only intake of radionuclides is by inhalation, the total effective dose equivalent limit is not exceeded if the sum of the deep dose equivalent divided by the total effective dose equivalent limit, and any one of the following, does not exceed unity:
DHS 157.22(2)(b)1. 1. The sum of the fractions of the inhalation ALI for each radionuclide.
DHS 157.22(2)(b)2. 2. The total number of derived air concentration-hours for all radionuclides divided by 2,000.
DHS 157.22(2)(b)3. 3. The sum of the calculated committed effective dose equivalents to all significantly irradiated organs or tissues calculated from bioassay data using appropriate biological models and expressed as a fraction of the annual limit. For purposes of this subdivision, an organ or tissue is deemed to be significantly irradiated if, for that organ or tissue, the product of the weighting factors, wT, and the committed dose equivalent, H T,50, per unit intake is greater than 10% of the maximum weighted value of HT,50, that is, wTHT,50, per unit intake for any organ or tissue.
DHS 157.22(2)(c) (c) If the occupationally exposed individual also receives an intake of radionuclides by oral ingestion greater than 10% of the applicable oral ALI, a licensee or registrant shall account for this intake and include it in demonstrating compliance with the limits.
DHS 157.22(2)(d) (d) A licensee or registrant shall evaluate and, to the extent practical, account for intakes through wounds or skin absorption. The intake through intact skin has been included in the calculation of DAC for hydrogen-3 and does not need to be evaluated or taken into account.
DHS 157.22(3) (3)Determination of external doses from airborne radioactive material.
DHS 157.22(3)(a)(a) A licensee or registrant shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the contribution to the deep dose equivalent, eye dose equivalent, and shallow dose equivalent from external exposure to the radioactive cloud.
DHS 157.22 Note Note: See Appendix E, footnotes a/ and b/ for methods used for calculating dose from exposure to a radioactive cloud for materials that have a half-life of less than 2 hours.
DHS 157.22(3)(b) (b) Airborne radioactivity measurements and DAC values may not be used as the primary means to assess the deep dose equivalent when the airborne radioactive material includes radionuclides other than noble gases or if the cloud of airborne radioactive material is not relatively uniform in its distribution of radioactive material in the cloud. The determination of the deep dose equivalent to an individual shall be based upon measurements using instruments or individual monitoring devices.
DHS 157.22(4) (4)Determination of internal exposure.
DHS 157.22(4)(a)(a) For purposes of assessing dose used to determine compliance with occupational dose equivalent limits, a licensee or registrant shall, when required under s. DHS 157.25 (2), take suitable and timely measurements of all of the following:
DHS 157.22(4)(a)1. 1. Concentrations of airborne radioactive materials in work areas.
DHS 157.22(4)(a)2. 2. Quantities of radionuclides in the body.
DHS 157.22(4)(a)3. 3. Quantities of radionuclides excreted from the body.
DHS 157.22(4)(a)4. 4. Combinations of the measurements in subds. 1. to 3.
DHS 157.22(4)(b) (b) Unless respiratory protective equipment is used, as provided in s. DHS 157.27 (3), or the assessment of intake is based on bioassays, a licensee or registrant shall assume that an individual inhales radioactive material at the airborne concentration in which the individual is present.
DHS 157.22(4)(c) (c) When the physical and biochemical properties of the radionuclides taken into the body or the behavior of the material in an individual is known, a licensee or registrant may do any of the following:
DHS 157.22(4)(c)1. 1. Use that information to calculate the committed effective dose equivalent, and, if used, the licensee or registrant shall document that information in the individual's record.
DHS 157.22(4)(c)2. 2. Upon prior approval of the department, adjust the DAC or ALI values to reflect the actual physical and chemical characteristics of airborne radioactive material, for example, aerosol size distribution or density.
DHS 157.22(4)(c)3. 3. Separately assess the contribution of fractional intakes of Class D, W or Y compounds of a given radionuclide to the committed effective dose equivalent.
DHS 157.22 Note Note: See Appendix E for a description of the pulmonary clearance times of the compounds involved in the exposure.
DHS 157.22(4)(d) (d) If a licensee or registrant chooses to assess intakes of Class Y material using the measurements given in par. (a) 2. or 3., a licensee or registrant may delay the recording and reporting of the assessments for periods up to 7 months, unless otherwise required by s. DHS 157.32 (2) or (3).
DHS 157.22 Note Note: The delay permits the licensee or registrant to make additional measurements basic to the assessments.
DHS 157.22(4)(e) (e) If the identity and concentration of each radionuclide in a mixture are known, the fraction of the DAC applicable to the mixture for use in calculating DAC-hours shall be either of the following:
DHS 157.22(4)(e)1. 1. The sum of the ratios of the concentration to the appropriate DAC value, that is, D, W or Y, from Appendix E for each radionuclide in the mixture.
DHS 157.22(4)(e)2. 2. The ratio of the total concentration for all radionuclides in the mixture to the most restrictive DAC value for any radionuclide in the mixture.
DHS 157.22(4)(f) (f) If the identity of each radionuclide in a mixture is known, but the concentration of one or more of the radionuclides in the mixture is not known, the DAC for the mixture shall be the most restrictive DAC of any radionuclide in the mixture.
DHS 157.22(4)(g) (g) When a mixture of radionuclides in air exists, a licensee or registrant may disregard certain radionuclides in the mixture if all of the following apply:
DHS 157.22(4)(g)1. 1. The licensee or registrant uses the total activity of the mixture in demonstrating compliance with the dose limits in s. DHS 157.22 (1) and in complying with the monitoring requirements in s. DHS 157.25 (2) (b).
DHS 157.22(4)(g)2. 2. The concentration of any radionuclide disregarded is less than 10% of its DAC.
DHS 157.22(4)(g)3. 3. The sum of the percentages under subds. 1. and 2. for all of the radionuclides disregarded in the mixture does not exceed 30%.
DHS 157.22(4)(h) (h) When determining the committed effective dose equivalent, the following information may be considered:
DHS 157.22(4)(h)1. 1. To calculate the committed effective dose equivalent, the licensee or registrant may assume that the inhalation of one ALI, or an exposure of 2,000 DAC-hours, results in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem) for radionuclides that have their ALIs or DACs based on the committed effective dose equivalent.
DHS 157.22(4)(h)2. 2. For an ALI and the associated DAC determined by the non-stochastic organ dose limit of 0.5 Sv (50 rem), the intake of radionuclides that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem), that is, the stochastic ALI, is listed in parentheses in Table I of ch. DHS 157 Appendix E. The licensee or registrant may, as a simplifying assumption, use the stochastic ALI to determine committed effective dose equivalent. However, if the licensee or registrant uses the stochastic ALI, the licensee or registrant shall also demonstrate that the limit in s. DHS 157.22 (1) (a) 1. b. is met.
DHS 157.22(5) (5)Determination of prior occupational dose.
DHS 157.22(5)(a)(a) For each individual who may enter a licensee's or registrant's restricted area and is likely to receive, in a year, an occupational dose requiring monitoring under s. DHS 157.25 (2), a licensee or registrant shall determine the occupational radiation dose received during the current year.
DHS 157.22(5)(b) (b) Before an individual may participate in a planned special exposure, a licensee or registrant shall determine all of the following:
DHS 157.22(5)(b)1. 1. The internal and external doses from all previous planned special exposures.
DHS 157.22(5)(b)2. 2. All doses in excess of the limits, including doses received during accidents and emergencies, received during the lifetime of the individual.
DHS 157.22(5)(c) (c) In complying with the requirements of par. (a), a licensee or registrant may use either of the following means:
DHS 157.22(5)(c)1. 1. Accept, as a record of the occupational dose that the individual received during the current year, a written signed statement from the individual, or from the individual's most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, that discloses the nature and the amount of any occupational dose that the individual received during the current year.
DHS 157.22(5)(c)2. 2. Obtain, by telephone, facsimile, electronic media or letter, reports of the individual's dose equivalent from the most recent employer for work involving radiation exposure, or the individual's current employer, if the individual is not employed by the licensee or registrant. A licensee or registrant shall request a written verification of the dose data if the authenticity of the transmitted report cannot be established.
DHS 157.22(5)(d)1.1. A licensee or registrant shall record the exposure history, as required by par. (a), on an occupational radiation exposure form provided by the department, or other clear and legible record of all the information required on that form. The form or record shall show each period in which the individual received occupational exposure to radiation or radioactive material and shall be signed by the individual who received the exposure. For each period for which a licensee or registrant obtains reports, a licensee or registrant shall use the dose shown in the report in preparing the occupational radiation exposure form or equivalent. For any period in which a licensee or registrant does not obtain a report, a licensee or registrant shall place a notation on the occupational radiation exposure form or equivalent indicating the periods of time for which data are not available.
DHS 157.22 Note Note: An occupational radiation exposure history form may be obtained by writing to: Department of Health Services, Radiation Protection Section, P.O. Box 2659, Madison WI 53701-2659; or by downloading the form from the Department website at: http://dhs.wisconsin.gov/radiation/Index.htm.
DHS 157.22(5)(d)2. 2. A licensee or registrant is not required to partition historical dose between external dose equivalents and internal committed dose equivalents. Further, occupational exposure histories obtained and recorded on the department's occupational radiation exposure form or equivalent before the effective date of August 1, 2002, may not have included effective dose equivalent, but may be used in the absence of specific information on the intake of radionuclides by the individual.
DHS 157.22(5)(e) (e) If a licensee or registrant is unable to obtain a complete record of an individual's current and previously accumulated occupational dose, a licensee or registrant shall assume all the following:
DHS 157.22(5)(e)1. 1. In establishing administrative controls under sub. (1) (f) for the current year, that the allowable dose limit for the individual is reduced by 12.5 mSv (1.25 rem) for each quarter for which records were unavailable and the individual was engaged in activities that could have resulted in occupational radiation exposure.
DHS 157.22(5)(e)2. 2. That the individual is not available for planned special exposures.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.