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DHS 157.03(34)(b) (b) Is identified as an authorized user on a nuclear regulatory commission or agreement state license or other equivalent permit or license recognized by the NRC that authorizes the medical use of radioactive material.
DHS 157.03(34)(c) (c) Is identified as an authorized user on a permit issued by a nuclear regulatory commission or agreement state specific licensee of broad scope that is authorized to permit the medical use of radioactive material.
DHS 157.03(35) (35)“Automatic exposure control" or “AEC" means a device that automatically controls one or more technique factors to obtain at a preselected location a required quantity of radiation.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: Examples of an automatic exposure control includes devices such as phototimers and ion chambers.
DHS 157.03(36) (36)“Autoradiograph" means a radiographic image created by placing a sealed source on radiographic film to directly expose the film.
DHS 157.03(36m) (36m)“Background investigation" means the investigation conducted by a licensee or applicant for a license to support the determination of trustworthiness and reliability.
DHS 157.03(37) (37)“Background radiation" means radiation from cosmic sources, naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon, except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material and including global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of a licensee or registrant. “Background radiation" does not include sources of radiation from radioactive materials regulated by the department.
DHS 157.03(38) (38)“Barrier" means a device or material used to restrict access to an area.
DHS 157.03(39) (39)“Beam axis" means a line from the source through the centers of the radiation fields.
DHS 157.03(40) (40)“Beam monitoring system" means a system designed and installed in the radiation head to detect and measure the radiation present in the useful beam.
DHS 157.03(41) (41)“Beam scattering foil" means a thin piece of material, usually metallic, placed in the beam to scatter a beam of electrons to provide a more uniform electron distribution in the useful beam.
DHS 157.03(42) (42)“Beam-limiting device" means a field defining collimator that provides a means to restrict the dimensions of the useful beam to the desired dimensions.
DHS 157.03(43) (43)“Becquerel" or “Bq" means the SI unit of activity. One becquerel equals one disintegration or transformation per second. The special unit of decay is the curie and is being replaced by the becquerel.
DHS 157.03(44) (44)“Bent beam linear accelerator" means a linear accelerator geometry in which the accelerated electron beam must change direction by passing through a bending magnet.
DHS 157.03(45) (45)“Bioassay" means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement, in vivo counting or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body.
DHS 157.03(46) (46)“Brachytherapy" means a method of radiation therapy in which sources are used to deliver a radiation dose at a distance of up to a few centimeters by surface, intracavitary or interstitial application.
DHS 157.03(47) (47)“Brachytherapy source" means a radioactive material or a manufacturer-assembled material train or a combination of these materials.
DHS 157.03(48) (48)“Broad scope license" means a specific license authorizing receipt, acquisition, ownership, possession, use and transfer of any chemical or physical form of up to multi-curie quantities of radioactive material, including the establishment of administrative procedures that assure control of procurement and safe use of radioactive materials.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: Section DHS 157.13 (3) (b) describes the different types of broad scope licenses.
DHS 157.03(49) (49)“Buffer zone" means a portion of a disposal site that is controlled by the licensee that lies under the disposal units and is between the disposal units and the site boundary.
DHS 157.03(50) (50)“Byproduct material" means any of the following:
DHS 157.03(50)(a) (a) Any radioactive material, except special nuclear material, yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or using special nuclear material.
DHS 157.03(50)(b) (b) The tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium or thorium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute “byproduct material" within this definition.
DHS 157.03(50)(c) (c) Any discrete source of radium-226 that has been produced, extracted or converted after extraction, for use for a commercial, medical or research activity.
DHS 157.03(50)(d) (d) Any material that has been made radioactive by use of a particle accelerator, and is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, for use for a commercial, medical or research activity.
DHS 157.03(50)(e) (e) Any discrete source of naturally occurring radioactive material, other than source material, that the NRC, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the head of any other appropriate federal agency, determines would pose a threat similar to the threat posed by a discrete source of radium-226 to the public health and safety or the common defense and security, and is extracted or converted after extraction for use in a commercial, medical or research activity.
DHS 157.03(51) (51)“Cabinet radiography" means industrial radiography conducted in an enclosure or cabinet so shielded that every location on the exterior meets the dose limits for individual members of the public as specified in s. DHS 157.23 (1).
DHS 157.03(52) (52)“Cabinet x-ray system" means an x-ray system, manufactured under the requirements of 21 CFR 1020.40, with an x-ray tube installed in an enclosure that is independent of existing architectural structures except the floor. The cabinet x-ray system is intended to contain at least that portion of a material being irradiated, provide radiation attenuation and exclude personnel from its interior during generation of radiation. “Cabinet x-ray system" includes x-ray systems designed primarily for the inspection of carry-on baggage at airline, railroad and bus terminals and in similar facilities. An x-ray tube used within a shielded part of a building or x-ray equipment that may temporarily or occasionally incorporate portable shielding is not considered a cabinet x-ray system.
DHS 157.03(53) (53)“Calendar quarter" means a period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee or registrant, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: A calendar quarter is approximately 13 consecutive weeks.
DHS 157.03(54) (54)“C-arm x-ray system" means an x-ray system in which the image receptor and x-ray tube housing assembly are connected by a common mechanical support system to maintain a desired spatial relationship. The system allows the operator to change the projection of the beam through the patient without changing the position of the patient.
DHS 157.03(55) (55)“Calibration" means determining either of the following:
DHS 157.03(55)(a) (a) The response or reading of an instrument relative to a series of known radiation values over the range of the instrument.
DHS 157.03(55)(b) (b) The strength of a source of radiation relative to a standard.
DHS 157.03(56) (56)“Carrier" means a person engaged in the transportation of passengers or property by land or water as a common, contract or private carrier or by civil aircraft.
DHS 157.03(56g) (56g)“Category 1 quantity of radioactive material" means a quantity of radioactive material meeting or exceeding the category 1 threshold in ch. DHS 157 Appendix U.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: This is determined by calculating the ratio of the total activity of each radionuclide to the category 1 threshold for that radionuclide and adding the ratios together. If the sum is equal to or exceeds 1, the quantity would be considered a category 1 quantity. Category 1 quantities of radioactive material do not include the radioactive material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet. Chapter DHS 157 Appendix U is used to determine the category 1 threshold for a category 1 quantity of radioactive material. The category 1 and category 2 thresholds in ch. DHS 157 Appendix U and ch. DHS 157 Appendix T are not interchangeable.
DHS 157.03(56r) (56r)“Category 2 quantity of radioactive material" means a quantity of radioactive material meeting or exceeding the category 2 threshold, but less than the category 1 threshold in ch. DHS 157 Appendix U.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: This is determined by calculating the ratio of the total activity of each radionuclide to the category 2 threshold for that radionuclide and adding the ratios together. If the sum is equal to or exceeds 1, the quantity would be considered a category 2 quantity. Category 2 quantities of radioactive material do not include the radioactive material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet. Chapter DHS 157 Appendix U is used to determine the category 2 threshold for a category 2 quantity of radioactive material. The category 1 and category 2 thresholds in ch. DHS 157 Appendix U and ch. DHS 157 Appendix T are not interchangeable.
DHS 157.03(57) (57)“Cephalometric device" means a device intended for the radiographic visualization and measurement of the dimensions of the human head.
DHS 157.03(57g) (57g)“Certificate holder" means a person who has been issued a certificate of compliance or other package approval by the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission.
DHS 157.03(57r) (57r)“Certificate of Compliance" or “CoC" means the certificate issued by the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission under subpart D of 10 CFR 71 which approves the design of a package for the transportation of radioactive material.
DHS 157.03(58) (58)“Certified components" means components of x-ray systems subject to 21 CFR 1010.2.
DHS 157.03(59) (59)“Certified system" means any x-ray system that has one or more components certified under 21 CFR 1010.2.
DHS 157.03(60) (60)“Certifying entity" means an independent certifying organization meeting the requirements in 10 CFR 34, Appendix A or an agreement state meeting the requirements in 10 CFR 34, Appendix A, Parts II and III.
DHS 157.03(61) (61)“Changeable filters" means any filter, exclusive of inherent filtration, that may be removed from the useful beam through any electronic, mechanical or physical process.
DHS 157.03(62) (62)“Chelating agent" means a chemical compound used to remove radioactive material from other substances.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: Examples of chelating agents are amine polycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, glucinic acid and polycarboxylic acids.
DHS 157.03(63) (63)“Chiropractor" means an individual licensed under ch. 446, Stats., to practice chiropractic.
DHS 157.03(64) (64)“Class" means a classification scheme for inhaled material according to the material's rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W or Y, depending on the amount of time half of the material clears from human lungs. Half of class D material clears from lungs in less than 10 days; half of class W material clears from lungs in from 10 to 100 days; and half of class Y material clears from lungs in greater than 100 days.
DHS 157.03(65) (65)“Cinefluorography" means the continuous recording of a fluoroscopy image using movie film.
DHS 157.03(66) (66)“Client's address" means the area of use or a temporary jobsite for the purpose of providing mobile medical service.
DHS 157.03(67) (67)“Closed transport vehicle" means a transport vehicle equipped with a securely attached exterior enclosure that during normal transportation restricts the access of unauthorized persons to the cargo space containing a radioactive material. The enclosure may be either temporary or permanent but shall limit access from top, sides and ends. In the case of packaged materials, the vehicle may be of the “see-through" type that allows observation of the packages while prohibiting access.
DHS 157.03(68) (68)“Coefficient of variation" means the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value of a population of observations. It is estimated using the following equation:
where:
S = standard deviation of the observed values;
X = mean value of observations in sample;
Xi = ith observation in sample; and
n = number of observations in sample.
DHS 157.03(69) (69)“Collective dose" means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.
DHS 157.03(70) (70)“Collimator" means one of the following:
DHS 157.03(70)(a) (a) A radiation shield that is placed on the end of the guide tube or directly onto a radiographic exposure device to restrict the size of the radiation beam when the sealed source is moved into position to make a radiographic exposure.
DHS 157.03(70)(b) (b) A device attached to an x-ray tube that limits the radiation area.
DHS 157.03(71) (71)“Commission" means the United States nuclear regulatory commission.
DHS 157.03(72) (72)“Committed dose equivalent" or “CDE" means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake.
DHS 157.03(73) (73)“Committed effective dose equivalent" or “CEDE" is the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues.
DHS 157.03 Note Note: Committed effective dose equivalent (HE,50) equals the sum of the weighting factor (wT,) times the committed dose equivalent (HT,50).
DHS 157.03(74) (74)“Computed tomography" or “CT" means the production of a tomogram by the acquisition and computer processing of x-ray transmission data.
DHS 157.03(75)(a)(a) “Computed tomography dose index" or “CTDI" means the integral from -10T to +10T of the dose profile along a line perpendicular to the tomographic plane divided by the product of the nominal tomographic section thickness and the number of tomograms produced in a single scan, that is: - See PDF for table PDF
where:
z = position along a line perpendicular to the tomographic plane;
D(z) = dose at position z;
T = nominal tomographic section thickness in millimeters;
n = number of tomograms produced in a single scan.
DHS 157.03(75)(b) (b) The definition of “computed tomography dose index" assumes that the dose profile is centered around z=0 and that, for a multiple tomogram system, the scan increment between adjacent scans is nT.
DHS 157.03(75m) (75m)“Consignment" means each shipment of a package or groups of packages or load of radioactive material offered by a shipper for transport.
DHS 157.03(75r) (75r)“Consortium" means an association of medical use licensees and a PET facility in the same geographical area, physically located at an educational institution, a federal facility or a medical facility, that jointly own or share in the operation and maintenance cost of the PET facility that produces PET radionuclides for use in producing radioactive drugs within the consortium for noncommercial distributions among its associated members for medical use.
DHS 157.03(76) (76)“Constraint" means a value above which specified licensee or registrant actions are required.
DHS 157.03(77) (77)“Contact therapy system" means a therapeutic radiation machine with a short target to skin distance, usually less than 5 centimeters.
DHS 157.03(77m) (77m)“Contamination” means the presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm2 (1x10-5 microcurie/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm2 (1x10 -6 microcurie/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.
DHS 157.03(78) (78)“Control cable" means the cable that is connected to the source assembly and used to drive the source to and from the exposure location.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.