That the insurer is or is about to become insolvent;
That the insurer is engaging in a systematic practice of reaching settlements with and obtaining releases from policyholders or 3rd-party claimants and then unreasonably delaying payment of or failing to pay the agreed upon settlements;
That the insurer is in such condition that the further transaction of business would be hazardous, financially or otherwise, to its policyholders, its creditors or the public;
That the insurer has not transacted the business of insurance during the previous 12 months or has transacted only a token insurance business during that period, although authorized to do so throughout that period, or that more than 12 months after incorporation it has failed to become authorized to do an insurance business;
That within any part of the previous 12 months the insurer has systematically attempted to compromise with its creditors on the ground that it is financially unable to pay its claims in full;
That the insurer has commenced, or within the previous year has attempted to commence, voluntary liquidation otherwise than under chs. 600
That the insurer has concealed records or assets from the commissioner or improperly removed them from the jurisdiction;
That the insurer does not satisfy the requirements that would be applicable if it were seeking initial authorization to do an insurance business in this state, except for:
Requirements that are intended to apply only at the time the initial authorization to do business is obtained, and not thereafter; and
Requirements that are expressly made inapplicable by the laws establishing the requirements;
That the holders of two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote, or two-thirds of the members or policyholders entitled to vote in an insurer controlled by its members or policyholders, have consented to a petition.
Liquidation orders. 645.42(1)(1)
Order to liquidate.
An order to liquidate the business of a domestic insurer shall appoint the commissioner and his or her successors in office liquidator and shall direct the liquidator to take possession of the assets of the insurer and to administer them under the orders of the court. The liquidator is vested by operation of law with the title to all of the property, contracts, rights of action and books and records, wherever located, of the insurer ordered liquidated, and with all of the stock issued by the insurer and any cause of action that has or subsequently accrues to the holder of the stock, as of the date of the filing of the petition for liquidation. The liquidator may recover and reduce the same to possession except that ancillary receivers in reciprocal states shall have, as to assets located in their respective states, the rights and powers which are prescribed in s. 645.84 (3)
for ancillary receivers appointed in this state as to assets located in this state. The recording of the order with any register of deeds in this state imparts the same notice as a deed, bill of sale or other evidence of title recorded with that register of deeds.
Fixing of rights.
Upon issuance of the order, the rights and liabilities of any such insurer and of its creditors, policyholders, shareholders, members and all other persons interested in its estate are fixed as of the date of filing of the petition for liquidation, except as provided in ss. 645.43
An order to liquidate the business of an alien insurer domiciled in this state shall be in the same terms and have the same legal effect as an order to liquidate a domestic insurer, except that the assets and the business in the United States shall be the only assets and business included under the order.
Declaration of insolvency.
At the time of petitioning for an order of liquidation, or at any time thereafter, the commissioner may petition the court to declare the insurer insolvent, and after such notice and hearing as it deems proper, the court may make the declaration.
Continuance of coverage. 645.43(1)(1)
All insurance policies issued by the insurer shall continue in force:
For a period of 15 days from the date of entry of the liquidation order;
Until the normal expiration of the policy coverage;
Until the insured has replaced the insurance coverage with equivalent insurance in another insurer; or
Until the liquidator has effected a transfer of the policy obligation pursuant to s. 645.46 (8)
; whichever time is less.
If the coverage continued under this section is replaced by insurance that is not equivalent, the coverage continued under this section shall be excess coverage over the replacement policy to the extent of the deficiency. Claims arising during the continuation of coverage shall be treated as if they arose immediately before the petition for liquidation. Coverage under this subsection shall not satisfy any legal obligation of the insured to carry insurance protection, whether the obligation is created by law or by contract.
Dissolution of insurer.
The commissioner may petition for an order dissolving the corporate existence of a domestic insurer or the U.S. branch of an alien insurer domiciled in this state at the time of the application for a liquidation order. If the court issues a liquidation order, it also shall order dissolution if the commissioner has petitioned for it. The court shall order dissolution of the corporation upon petition by the commissioner at any time after a liquidation order has been granted. If the dissolution has not previously occurred, it shall be effected by operation of law upon the discharge of the liquidator.
History: 1979 c. 102
Federal receivership. 645.45(1)(1)
Petition for federal receiver.
Whenever in the commissioner's opinion, liquidation of a domestic insurer or an alien insurer domiciled in this state would be facilitated by a federal receivership, and when any ground exists upon which the commissioner might petition the court for an order of rehabilitation or liquidation under s. 645.31
, or if an order of rehabilitation or liquidation has already been entered, the commissioner may request another commissioner or other willing resident of another state to petition any appropriate federal district court for the appointment of a federal receiver. The commissioner may intervene in any such action to support or oppose the petition, and may accept appointment as the receiver if he or she is so designated. So much of this chapter shall apply to the receivership as can be made applicable and is appropriate. Upon motion of the commissioner, the courts of this state shall relinquish all jurisdiction over the insurer for purposes of rehabilitation or liquidation.
Compliance with federal requirements.
If the commissioner is appointed receiver under this section, the commissioner shall comply with any requirements necessary to give him or her title to and control over the assets and affairs of the insurer.
History: 1979 c. 102
, 236 (5)
Powers of liquidator.
The liquidator shall report to the court monthly, or at other intervals specified by the court, on the progress of the liquidation in whatever detail the court orders. Subject to the court's control, the liquidator may:
Appoint a special deputy to act for the liquidator under this chapter, and determine the special deputy's compensation. The special deputy shall have all powers of the liquidator granted by this section. The special deputy shall serve at the pleasure of the liquidator.
Appoint or engage employees and agents, legal counsel, actuaries, accountants, appraisers, consultants and other personnel deemed necessary to assist in the liquidation. Chapter 230
does not apply to such persons.
Fix the compensation of persons under sub. (2)
, subject to the control of the court.
Defray all expenses of taking possession of, conserving, conducting, liquidating, disposing of, or otherwise dealing with the business and property of the insurer. If the property of the insurer does not contain sufficient cash or liquid assets to defray the costs incurred, the liquidator may advance the costs so incurred out of the appropriation under s. 20.145 (1) (g) 1.
Any amounts so paid shall be deemed expense of administration and shall be repaid for the credit of the office of the commissioner of insurance out of the first available moneys of the insurer.
Hold hearings, subpoena witnesses and compel their attendance, administer oaths, examine any person under oath and compel any person to subscribe to his or her testimony after it has been correctly reduced to writing, and in connection therewith require the production of any books, papers, records or other documents which the liquidator deems relevant to the inquiry.
Collect all debts and moneys due and claims belonging to the insurer, wherever located, and for this purpose institute timely action in other jurisdictions, in order to forestall garnishment and attachment proceedings against such debts; perform any other acts necessary or expedient to collect, conserve or protect its assets or property, including sell, compound, compromise or assign for purposes of collection, upon such terms and conditions as he or she deems best, any bad or doubtful debts; and pursue any creditor's remedies available to enforce his or her claims.
Conduct public and private sales of the property of the insurer in a manner prescribed by the court.
Cooperate with the fund created under ch. 646
in using assets of the estate to transfer policy obligations to a solid assuming insurer, if the transfer can be arranged without prejudice to applicable priorities under s. 645.68
Acquire, hypothecate, encumber, lease, improve, sell, transfer, abandon or otherwise dispose of or deal with any property of the insurer at its market value or upon fair and reasonable terms and conditions, except that no transaction involving property the market value of which exceeds $10,000 shall be concluded without express permission of the court. The liquidator also may execute, acknowledge and deliver any deeds, assignments, releases and other instruments necessary or proper to effectuate any sale of property or other transaction in connection with the liquidation. In cases where real property sold by the liquidator is located other than in the county where the liquidation is pending, the liquidator shall cause to be recorded with the register of deeds for the county in which the property is located the order of appointment.
Borrow money on the security of the insurer's assets or without security and execute and deliver all documents necessary to that transaction for the purpose of facilitating the liquidation.
Subject to par. (b)
, enter into such contracts as are necessary to carry out the order to liquidate, and affirm or disavow any contracts to which the insurer is a party.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no liquidator has the power to disavow any federal home loan bank security agreement, or any pledge, security, collateral, or guarantee agreement, or any other similar arrangement or credit enhancement relating to a federal home loan bank security agreement.
Continue to prosecute and institute in the name of the insurer or in his or her own name any suits and other legal proceedings, in this state or elsewhere, and abandon the prosecution of claims he or she deems unprofitable to pursue further. If the insurer is dissolved under s. 645.44
, the liquidator may apply to any court in this state or elsewhere for leave to substitute himself or herself for the insurer as plaintiff.
Prosecute any action which may exist in behalf of the creditors, members, policyholders or shareholders of the insurer against any officer of the insurer, or any other person.
Remove any records and property of the insurer to the offices of the commissioner or to such other place as is convenient for the purposes of efficient and orderly execution of the liquidation.
Deposit in one or more banks in this state such sums as are required for meeting current administration expenses and dividend distributions.
Deposit with the investment board for investment under s. 25.14
all sums not currently needed, unless the court orders otherwise.
File or record any necessary documents for record in the office of any register of deeds or record office in this state or elsewhere where property of the insurer is located.
Assert all defenses available to the insurer as against 3rd persons, including statutes of limitations, statutes of frauds and the defense of usury. A waiver of any defense by the insurer after a petition for liquidation has been filed does not bind the liquidator.
Exercise and enforce all the rights, remedies and powers of any creditor, shareholder, policyholder or member, including any power to avoid any transfer or lien that may be given by law and that is not included within ss. 645.52
Intervene in any proceeding wherever instituted that might lead to the appointment of a receiver or trustee, and act as the receiver or trustee whenever the appointment is offered.
Enter into agreements with any receiver or commissioner of any other state relating to the rehabilitation, liquidation, conservation or dissolution of an insurer doing business in both states.
Exercise all powers now held or hereafter conferred upon receivers by the laws of this state not inconsistent with this chapter.
The enumeration in this section of the powers and authority of the liquidator is not a limitation upon the liquidator, and does not exclude the right to do other acts not herein specifically enumerated or otherwise provided for which are necessary or expedient for the accomplishment of or in aid of the purpose of liquidation.
Notice to creditors and others. 645.47(1)(a)(a)
The liquidator shall give notice of the liquidation order as soon as possible by first class mail and either by telegram or telephone to the insurance commissioner of each jurisdiction in which the insurer is licensed to do business, by first class mail and by telephone to the department of workforce development of this state if the insurer is or has been an insurer of worker's compensation, by first class mail to all insurance agents having a duty under s. 645.48
, by first class mail to the director of state courts under s. 601.53 (1)
if the insurer does a surety business and by first class mail at the last-known address to all persons known or reasonably expected from the insurer's records to have claims against the insurer, including all policyholders. The liquidator also shall publish a class 3 notice, under ch. 985
, in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the liquidation is pending or in Dane County, the last publication to be not less than 3 months before the earliest deadline specified in the notice under sub. (2)
Notice to agents shall inform them of their duties under s. 645.48
and inform them of what information they must communicate to insureds. Notice to policyholders shall include notice of impairment and termination of coverage under s. 645.43
. When it is applicable, notice to policyholders shall include all of the following:
Notice of withdrawal of the insurer from the defense of any case in which the insured is interested.
Reports and further notice.
Within 15 days of the date of entry of the order, the liquidator shall report to the court what notice has been given. The court may order such additional notice as it deems appropriate.
Notice respecting claims filing.
Notice to potential claimants under sub. (1)
shall require claimants to file with the liquidator their claims together with proper proofs thereof under s. 645.62
, on or before a date the liquidator specifies in the notice, which shall be no less than 6 months nor more than one year after entry of the order, except that the liquidator need not require persons claiming unearned premium and persons claiming cash surrender values or other investment values in life insurance and annuities to file a claim. The liquidator may specify different dates for the filing of different kinds of claims.
If notice is given in accordance with this section, the distribution of the assets of the insurer under this chapter shall be conclusive with respect to all claimants, whether or not they received notice.
Duties of agents. 645.48(1)(1)
Every person who receives notice in the form prescribed in s. 645.47
that an insurer which the person represents as an independent agent is the subject of a liquidation order shall as soon as practicable give notice of the liquidation order. The notice shall be sent by first class mail to the last address contained in the agent's records to each policyholder or other person named in any policy issued through the agent by the company, if the agent has a record of the address of the policyholder or other person. A policy shall be deemed issued through an agent if the agent has a property interest in the expiration of the policy; or if the agent has had in his or her possession a copy of the declarations of the policy at any time during the life of the policy, except where the ownership of the expiration of the policy has been transferred to another. The written notice shall include the name and address of the insurer, the name and address of the agent, identification of the policy impaired and the nature of the impairment under s. 645.43
. Notice by a general agent satisfies the notice requirement for any agents under contract to the general agent.
So far as practicable, every insurance agent subject to sub. (1)
shall give immediate oral notice, by telephone or otherwise, of the liquidation order to the same persons to whom the agent is obligated to give written notice. The oral notice shall include substantially the same information as the written notice.
History: 1975 c. 371
; 1979 c. 102
Actions by and against liquidator. 645.49(1)(1)
Termination of actions against insurer by order appointing liquidator.
Upon issuance of any order appointing the commissioner liquidator of a domestic insurer or of an alien insurer domiciled in this state, all actions and all proceedings against the insurer whether in this state or elsewhere shall be abated and the liquidator shall not intervene in them, except as provided in this subsection. Whenever in the liquidator's judgment an action in this state has proceeded to a point where fairness or convenience would be served by its continuation to judgment, the liquidator may apply to the court for leave to defend or to be substituted for the insurer, and if the court grants the application, the action shall not be abated. Whenever in the liquidator's judgment, protection of the estate of the insurer necessitates intervention in an action against the insurer that is pending outside this state, with approval of the court the liquidator may intervene in the action. The liquidator may defend at the expense of the estate of the insurer any action in which he or she intervenes under this section at the expense of the estate of the insurer.
Statutes of limitations on claims by insurer.
The liquidator may, within 2 years subsequent to the entry of an order for liquidation or within such further time as applicable law permits, institute an action or proceeding on behalf of the estate of the insurer upon any cause of action against which the period of limitation fixed by applicable law has not expired at the time of the filing of the petition upon which such order is entered. Where, by any agreement, a period of limitation is fixed for instituting a suit or proceeding upon any claim or for filing any claim, proof of claim, proof of loss, demand, notice or the like, or where in any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, a period of limitation is fixed, either in the proceeding or by applicable law, for taking any action, filing any claim or pleading or doing any act, and where in any such case the period had not expired at the date of the filing of the petition, the liquidator may, for the benefit of the estate, take any such action or do any such act, required of or permitted to the insurer, within a period of 60 days subsequent to the entry of an order for liquidation, or within such further period as is permitted by the agreement, or in the proceeding or by applicable law, or within such further period as is shown to the satisfaction of the court not to be unfairly prejudicial to the other party.
Statutes of limitations on claims against insurer.
The time between the filing of a petition for liquidation against an insurer and the denial of the petition shall not be considered to be a part of the time within which any action may be commenced against the insurer. Any action against the insurer that might have been commenced when the petition was filed may be commenced for at least 60 days after the petition is denied.
History: 1979 c. 102
Collection and list of assets. 645.51(1)(1)
List of assets required.
As soon as practicable after the liquidation order, the liquidator shall prepare in duplicate a list of the insurer's assets. The list shall be amended or supplemented as the court requires. One copy shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the court having jurisdiction over the liquidation proceedings and one copy shall be retained for the liquidator's files. All amendments and supplements shall be similarly filed.
Liquidation of assets.
The liquidator shall reduce the assets to a degree of liquidity that is consistent with the effective execution of the liquidation as rapidly and economically as he or she can.
History: 1979 c. 102
s. 236 (5)
Fraudulent transfers prior to petition. 645.52(1)(1)
Definition and effect.
Every transfer made or suffered and every obligation incurred by an insurer within one year prior to the filing of a successful petition for rehabilitation or liquidation under this chapter is fraudulent as to then existing and future creditors if made or incurred without fair consideration, or with actual intent to hinder, delay or defraud either existing or future creditors. A transfer made or an obligation incurred by an insurer ordered to be rehabilitated or liquidated under this chapter, which is fraudulent under this section, may be avoided by the receiver, except as to a person who in good faith is a purchaser, lienor or obligee for a present fair equivalent value; and except that any purchaser, lienor or obligee, who in good faith has given a consideration less than fair for such transfer, lien or obligation, may retain the property, lien or obligation as security for repayment. The court may, on due notice, order any such transfer or obligation to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, and in that event the receiver shall succeed to and may enforce the rights of the purchaser, lienor or obligee.
A transfer of property other than real property shall be deemed to be made or suffered when it becomes so far perfected that no subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could become superior to the rights of the transferee under s. 645.54 (3)
A transfer of real property shall be deemed to be made or suffered when it becomes so far perfected that no subsequent bona fide purchaser from the insurer could obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee.
A transfer which creates an equitable lien shall not be deemed to be perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be created.
Transfer not perfected prior to petition.
Any transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation shall be deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition.