Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, an amendment to the articles of incorporation to include, modify or delete a provision authorized by sub. (1)
must be approved by the holders of all of the outstanding shares, whether or not the holders are otherwise entitled to vote on amendments, or, if no shares have been issued, by all of the subscribers for shares, if any, or, if none, by all of the incorporators.
History: 1989 a. 303
Power of court to grant relief. 180.1833(1)(1)
Grounds for relief.
Subject to sub. (4) (b)
, a shareholder of record, the beneficial owner of shares held by a nominee or the holder of voting trust certificates of a statutory close corporation may petition the circuit court for the county where the corporation's principal office or, if none in this state, its registered office is located for relief on any of the following grounds:
That the directors or those in control of the corporation have acted, are acting or will act in a manner that is illegal, oppressive, fraudulent or unfairly prejudicial to the petitioner in his or her capacity as a shareholder, director or officer of the corporation.
That the directors or those in control of the corporation are so divided respecting the management of the corporation's affairs that the votes required for action cannot be obtained and the shareholders are unable to break the deadlock, with the consequence that the corporation is suffering or will suffer irreparable injury or that the business and affairs of the corporation can no longer be conducted to the advantage of the shareholders generally.
If the court finds that one or more of the conditions specified in sub. (1)
exist, it shall grant appropriate relief, including any of the following:
Canceling, altering or enjoining any resolution or other act of the statutory close corporation.
Directing or prohibiting any act of the corporation or of shareholders, directors, officers or other persons who are party to the action.
Canceling or altering the articles of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation.
Removing from office any director or officer, or ordering that a person be appointed a director or officer.
Requiring an accounting with respect to any matters in dispute.
Appointing a receiver to manage the business and affairs of the corporation.
Appointing a provisional director who shall have all of the rights, powers and duties of a duly elected director and shall serve for the term and under the conditions established by the court.
If the court finds that it cannot order appropriate relief, ordering that the corporation be liquidated and dissolved unless either the corporation or one or more of the remaining shareholders purchase all of the shares of the petitioning shareholder at their fair value by a designated date, with the fair value and terms of the purchase to be determined under sub. (3)
Ordering dissolution if the court finds that one or more grounds exist for judicial dissolution under s. 180.1430 (2)
or that all other relief ordered by the court has failed to resolve the matters in dispute.
Awarding damages to any aggrieved party in addition to, or in lieu of, any other relief granted.
In determining whether to grant relief under par. (a) 9.
, the court shall consider the financial condition of the corporation but may not refuse to order liquidation solely on the grounds that the corporation has net worth or current operating profits.
If the court determines that a party to a proceeding brought under this section has acted arbitrarily, vexatiously or in bad faith, it may award reasonable expenses, including attorney fees and the costs of any appraisers or other experts, to one or more of the other parties.
Determine the fair value of the shares to be purchased, considering the going concern value of the statutory close corporation, any agreement among the shareholders fixing a price or specifying a formula for determining the value of the corporation's shares for any purpose, the recommendations of any appraisers appointed by the court, any legal constraints on the corporation's ability to acquire the shares to be purchased and other relevant evidence.
The identity of the purchaser by name and the purchaser's status as a current shareholder or 3rd-party purchaser.
The terms of the purchase found to be proper under the circumstances, including payment of the purchase price in installments, payment of interest on the installments, subordination of the obligation to the rights of the corporation's other creditors, security for the deferred purchase price, and a covenant not to compete or other restriction on the selling shareholder.
Order the selling shareholder to deliver all of his or her shares to the court, and order the purchaser to deliver each payment for shares to the court.
Order that after the selling shareholder delivers his or her shares, the shareholder has no rights or claims against the corporation or its directors, officers or shareholders by reason of having been a director, officer or shareholder of the corporation, except the right to receive the unpaid balance of the amount awarded under this section and any amounts due under any agreement with the corporation or the remaining shareholders that are not terminated by the court's orders.
Order dissolution of the corporation if the purchase is not completed as ordered.
If the share purchase is not consummated and the corporation is dissolved, a shareholder whose shares were to be purchased has the same rights and priorities in the corporation's assets as if the sale had not been ordered.
Except as provided in pars. (b)
, the rights of a shareholder to commence a proceeding under this section are in addition to, and not in lieu of, any other rights or remedies that the shareholder may have.
If a shareholder has agreed in writing to pursue a nonjudicial remedy to resolve disputed matters, the shareholder may not commence a proceeding under this section with respect to those matters until he or she has exhausted the nonjudicial remedy.
If a shareholder has dissenters' rights under this subchapter or s. 180.1302
with respect to proposed corporate action, the shareholder must commence a proceeding under this section before the shareholder is required to give notice of his or her intent to demand payment under s. 180.1321
or to demand payment under s. 180.1323
or the proceeding is barred.
History: 1989 a. 303
Corporate Control Contests: Judicial Dissolution of Closely Held Corporations. Laufer. Wis. Law. Feb. 1994.
Greater quorum or voting requirements. 180.1834(1)(1)
The articles of incorporation of a statutory close corporation may impose a greater quorum or voting requirement for shareholders, or classes of shareholders, than is required by this chapter.
An action by shareholders to adopt an amendment to the articles of incorporation that adds, changes or deletes a greater quorum or voting requirement must meet the same quorum requirement and be adopted by the same vote required to take action under the largest of the greater quorum or voting requirements then in effect or proposed to be added, changed or deleted.
History: 1989 a. 303
The failure of a statutory close corporation to observe usual corporate formalities or requirements relating to the exercise of its corporate powers or the management of its business and affairs is not grounds for imposing personal liability on the shareholders for obligations of the corporation.
History: 1989 a. 303
Officers; execution of documents. 180.1837(1)(1)
A statutory close corporation may operate and conduct business with one or more officers.
If an individual holds more than one office in a statutory close corporation, the individual may execute, acknowledge or verify in more than one capacity any instrument required to be executed, acknowledged or verified by the holders of 2 or more offices.
History: 1989 a. 303
“Employee" means an individual who is hired by a service corporation and who is usually and ordinarily considered by custom, practice or law to be rendering professional or other personal services for which a license, certificate, registration or other legal authorization is required. “Employee" does not include any of the following:
An individual who is hired by a service corporation and who provides services as an administrator, technician, clerk or bookkeeper.
An individual who performs all of his or her employment for a service corporation under the direct supervision and control of a licensed, registered or certified officer or employee of the service corporation.
“Health care professional" means an individual who is licensed, registered or certified by any of the following:
The massage therapy and bodywork therapy affiliated credentialing board under ch. 460
Marriage and family therapy, professional counseling, and social work examining board under ch. 457
Naturopathic medicine examining board under ch. 466
, except that “health care professional" does not include a limited-scope naturopathic doctor licensed by the naturopathic medicine examining board under ch. 466
Formation of service corporation. 180.1903(1)(1)
Except as provided in sub. (1m)
, one or more natural persons licensed, certified, or registered pursuant to any provisions of the statutes, if all have the same license, certificate, or registration or if all are health care professionals, may organize and own shares in a service corporation. A service corporation may own, operate, and maintain an establishment and otherwise serve the convenience of its shareholders in carrying on the particular profession, calling, or trade for which the licensure, certification, or registration of its organizers is required.
A service corporation for carrying on the profession of certified public accounting may be organized under sub. (1)
if more than 50 percent of the shareholders are certified public accountants.
Professional or other personal services, consultation or advice in any form may be rendered only by directors, officers, agents or employees of the service corporation who are licensed, certified or registered pursuant to statute in the field of endeavor designated in the articles of incorporation of the service corporation.
Liability may not accrue to a service corporation or its shareholders solely as a result of a decision to organize under sub. (1)
or solely as a result of a decision to include or exclude a category of health care professionals as eligible to become shareholders of the service corporation.
Each health care professional, other than a physician or nurse anesthetist, who is a shareholder of a service corporation and who has the authority to provide health care services that are not under the direction and supervision of a physician or nurse anesthetist shall carry malpractice insurance that provides coverage of not less than the amounts established under s. 655.23 (4)
Business corporation law applicable. 180.1905(1)(1)
Other provisions of this chapter shall be applicable to service corporations, including their organization, and service corporations shall enjoy the powers and privileges and be subject to the duties, restrictions and liabilities of other stock corporations, except as provided in ss. 180.1901
. A service corporation may not engage in any business other than that for which it was specifically organized and for which its charter was granted.
History: 1989 a. 303
The service corporation may bear the last name of one or more persons formerly or currently associated with it. A service corporation may adopt a name which does not include the surname of any present or former shareholder. The corporate name shall end with the word “chartered" or “limited", or the words “service corporation", or the abbreviation “ltd." or “S.C.". A service corporation in existence on January 1, 1991, need not change its name to comply with this section.
History: 1989 a. 303
; 1991 a. 16
Filing articles of incorporation.
Before commencing operations, a service corporation shall deliver its articles of incorporation to the department for filing.